Keta hurumi, Fallasa, da Kutse: Yadda rayuwar bayanan mai zabe ke cikin hadari

Menene keta hurumi, fallasa da kutse?

A yau, bayanan mai zabe na iya fusktantar hadarin kutse da keta hurumi, kamar, yadda katin cire kudi daga banki ATM ke fuskanta, hakazalika yana iya fuskantar rashin isasshen tsaron hukumomi. Kai, matsalar ta riga ta game fadin duniya. Yayinda kafafen yada labarai a fadin duniya ke ruwaito yadda ake kutse cikin bayanai da keta hurumin zabubbuka ta hanyar fallasa sakonnin akwatin email, kuma gwamnatocin kasashe na da hannu ta hanyar ruruta labaran karya ko rashin bayar da tsaro (kamar hadarin da na’urar manhajar kwamfyuta na rumfar zabe ke iya shiga), toh bayanan mai zabe na cikin hadari. Bayanan mai zabe na iya shiga hadari ta hanyar kutse, fallasa na kure, rashin tsarin tsaro mai inganci, ko satan kayan aiki. Ko da ba’a yiwa bayanan rikon sakainar kashi ba sosai, duk bayanin mai zaben da aka riga akayi kutse na kunshe da labarai masu muhimmanci kuma za a iya saurin ganewa. Duk da cewa bayanan masu kada kuri’a na iya zama dukiyar siyasa, tana kuma iya zama akasin haka. Sama da bayanan jama’a bilyan uku masu kutse suka sace a yanar gizo kuma kashi biyu cikin ukun wadanda abin ya shafa basu san an yi musu barna ba, bisa cewar rahoton cibiyar ilmin dabaru a duniya da McAfee. Wasu daga cikin manyan misalai sune keta hurumin da aka yiwa kamfanin jaridar Equifax Credit, inda aka bayanan arzikin mutanen Amurka milyan 143 ya fallasa; kutse da aka yiwa kamfanin Yahoo, inda ya shafi akalla mutane bilyan 1; da kuma kutse da aka yiwa wata babbar kamfanin kasar Afrika ta Kudu da yayi sanadiyar rashin [bayanan mutane] kimanin milyan 31, wanda ya hada da shugaban kasar, ministan kudi da ministan harkokin yan sanda. Bayanan sun hada na kudin albashinsu, adireshinsu, da lambobin wayarsu.

Wasu irin bayanai hakan ke shafa?

Bayanan masu kada kuri’an da aka yiwa kutse ya tattari bayanai da hanyoyi biyu:

Rijistan masu zabe na gwamnati: Yayinda akwai iri daban-daban a kasashen duniya, yawancin rijistan masu zabe na dauke da sunayen mai zabe, ranar haihuwarsa, da inda yake da zama, wanda mutum zai iya fada da kansa ko kuma gwamnati ta rubuta masa. Dangane da yadda tsarin kasar yake, rijistan masu zabe na gwamnati na iya kasancewa karkashin kular gwamnatin jiha ko ta kananan hukumomi. A kasar Amurka, dangane da jihar, irin wadannan bayanai na ajiye ne a shafin kwamfyuta kuma ana iya turawa masu sayan kundin masu zabe. Haka kuma rijistan zabe na iya zama karkashin kulawar gwamnatin tarayya, kamar yadda yake a kasar Birtaniya, inda za a iya samun a shafin kwamfyuta kuma a wallafar takarda.

Kundin masu zabe: Ana kirkirar kundin masu zabe ne a cikin gidan jam’iyyun siyasa ko masu binciken bayanan siyasa don manufar yakin neman zabe. Sau da dama kundin masu zabe na dauke da bayanan yadda za’a iya tuntunbar mutum kuma ana iya samo su ta takardun gwamnati, irinsu kiddidigar yan kasa ko rijistan zabe, wanda kuma akan iya kara ingancinsa da wasu bayanai. Wadannan jerin bayanan na kunshe da tushe daban-daban, daga cikin yanar gizo da wajen yanar gizo da bayanan dabi’a daga dillalai, zuwa bayanin kudi daga cibiyoyin kudi domin neman bayanai daga masu yakin neman zabe na sa kai. Lokuta da yawa, kamfanonin ajiya a na’ura da suka kware a ilimin fasahar yakin neman zabe ke kula da kundin masu zabe.

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Ballin hoton bayanan RNC da masanin bayanan yanar gizon kamfanin Upguard, Chris Vickery, ya gano, mai nuna lambobin katin RNC dake bayanan goyon bayan wasu shirye-shirye.
Asali: Dan O’Sullivan. “The RNC Files: Inside the Largest US Voter Data Leak.” UpGuard, An duba 4 Satumba 2018

Wasu Misalai

Keta hurumi A Hong Kong: A watan Maris 2017, an sace na’urar kwamfyutar tafi-da-gidanka guda biyu mallakin ofishin rijistan zaben Hong Kong yayin shirin baja kolin duniyar Asiya. Kwamfutocin na dauke da bayanan dukkan al’ummar Hong Kong da aka yiwa Rijista milyan 3.78, wanda ya hada da sunayensu, adireshinsu, lambobin katinsu, lambobin wayoyinsu, da kuma yankunan da sukayi rijista. Bugu da kari, sunayen mutane 1,194 masu zaben mambobin kwamitin zaben Hong Kong na adane cikin kwamfutocin na tafi-da-gidanka. Yayinda aka samu labarin cewan an sirrance bayanan, jami’an tsaro masu binciken satar basu fidda tsammanin akwai sa hannun wasu yan cikin gida ba.

A kasar Philippines: A shekarar 2016, a wani abu da za’a iya siffantawa matsayin kutse mafi girma da aka taba yiwa wata gwamnati a tarihi, an kai hari shafin yanar gizon hukumar shirya zaben kasar Philippines. A daidai lokacin, wani shafin yanar gizo ya fara watsa labarai kai tsaye inda akayi ikirarin cewa an samu runbun bayanan mutane milyan 55 da aka yiwa rijista mai nauyin ma’aunin bayanai 340-gigabyte. Wasu rahotanni sun kara adadin wadanda abin ya shafa zuwa milyan 70. Bayanan da aka fallasa sun hada da sunayen mutane, ranar haihuwarsu, adireshinsu, adireshin akwatin email, sunayen iyayensu, wasu har da bayanan fasfo da sahun yatsunsu – dukka an fallasa a yanar gizo. Wasu kungiyoyi biyu Anonymous Philippines da LulzSec Philippines suka dauki alhakin aikita wannan kutse.

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Ballin hoton shafin yanar gizon hukumar gudanar da zaben kasar Filibbin wanda aka lalata yayin kutsen bayanan da Anonymous Philippines yayi a 2016.
Asali: http://www.comelec.gov.ph, 27 Maris 2016.

Fallasa

A kasar Lebanon: A Afrilun 2018, an ruwaito cewa ofishoshin jakadancin kasar Lebanon sun bayar da bayanan yan kasar mazauna kasashen waje. Ofishin Jakadancin Lebanon dake kasar UAE ta tura sakon email zuwa yan Lebanon dake zaune a kasar mai dauke da bayanan sama da yan kasar Lebanon 5,000 da sukayi rijista a zaben da ake shirin gudanarwa, inda aka bukacesu su tabbatar da bayanansu a takardar rijistan zaben. Ofishin jakadancin Lebanon dake Hague ta tura irin wannan sakon zuwa sama da mutane 200 dauke da bayanan yan asalin kasar Lebanon dake zaune a kasar Netherland. Bayan haka, wanda ya tura sakon ya sanya adireshin mutanen da ya turawa a sashen Cc: maimamakon Bcc: A dukkan sakonnin dai, bayanan mutanen dake ciki ya hada da sunan mai zabe, sunan mahaifiyarsa, sunan mahaifinsa, jinsinsa, ranar haihuwarsa, addininsa, matsayin aurensa, da adireshinsa.

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SMEX ya samu wannan ballin hoton daga wani akwatin sako da ofishin jakadancin kasar Lebanon ta turo tare da takardan bayanan masu zaben da sukayi rijista.
Asali: "Lebanese Embassies Expose the Personal Data of Registered Voters Living Abroad.” SMEX: Channeling Advocacy, 6 Afrilu, 2018.

A kasar Mexico: A shekarar 2016, mai binciken tsari Chris Vickery ya samu kundin masu zaben kasar Mexico, mai dauke da bayanan masu zaben kasar milyan 87, cikin wani rumbun bayanai mara tsari a shafin yanar gizon Amazon. Abinda aka fallasa ya hada da sunayen mutane, adireshinsu, ranakun haihuwansu, da lambobin katunan zaman yan kasa kuma an gano su ne ta hanya mai sauki. Bayan gudanar da bincike na cikin gida, cibiyar gudanar da zaben kasa ta ci tarar jam’iyyar Movimiento Ciudadano US$ 1.8 million na sakaci wajen kiyaye kwafinta na jerin bayanan.

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Gyararren ballin hoton bayanan yan kasar Mexico da aka tsinta bayan kutsen bayanai da mai binciken kamfanin MacKeeper, Chris Vickery, ya samar domin amfani cikin wani labarin da jaridar The Daily Dot ta wallafa.
Asali: Dell Cameron. “Private Records of 93.4 Million Mexican Voters Exposed in Data Breach.” The Daily Dot, 22 Afrilu 2016.

A kasar Amurka: A shekarar 2017, masu binciken tsaron yanar gizo a kamfanin UpGuard sun gano wani rumbun bayanai da ba’a shirya da kyau ba dauke da bayanan masu kada kuri’a a Amurka milyan 198. Bayanan da aka fallasa na kunshe da sunayen mai zabe, ranar haihuwarsa, adireshin gidansa da na akwatin sako, lambar wayarsa, jam’iyyar da yayi rijista, kabilarsa, labarin rijistarsa, da kuma ko lambarka na cikin jerin wadanda suka bayyana cewa basu son masu talla suna kiransu. Bayan haka akwai bayanan kabila da addinan masu zabe. Fallasar ta hada da bayanai daga kamfanonin yakin neman zabe masu suna Deep Root Analytics, TargetPoint Consulting, Inc. da Data Trust—dukka wadanda jam’iyyar Republican ta baiwa kwangila. An ga rumbun bayanan mai nauyin 1.1-terabyte da ba’a baiwa tsaro mai kyau ba a shafin Amazon kuma kowa na iya gani. A karshe, wannan abu ya fallasa bayanan kusan dukkan mutane milyan 200 da sukayi rijistan zabe a Amurka.

Kutse

A kasar Turkiyya: A 2016, wani dan kutse ya watsa wani kundi a yanar gizo mai nauyin 6.6-gigabyte, mai taken Runbun zama dan kasar Turkiyya, kuma aka gano yana dauke da bayanan yan kasar milyan 50, wanda ya hada da sunayensu, adireshinsu, sunayen iyaye, wuraren haihuwa, ranakun haihuwa, da lambobin katin zama dan kasa. Yayinda wasu ke cewa bayanan tun na shekarar 2008 ne, wani dan rajin kare hakkin sirrukan mutane ya bayyanwa Wired cewa: ‘Na laluba jerin sunayen kuma na samu dukkan bayanan iyalaina….Babu wani uzurin cewa tun na shekarar 2008 ne saboda har yanzu da sunan nike amfani, da adireshin nike amfani, kuma tabbas da lambar katin zama dan kasan nike amfani. Hakan na nufin cewa har yanzu bayanai na da na wasu mutane da yawa na nan.

A kasar Amurka: A Oktoban 2018, wasu kamfanonin binciken kutse a yanar gizo sun ruwaito cewa ana tallar bayanan kimanin mutane milyan 35 da sukayi rijistar zabe a Amurka a wata kungiyar masu Kutse a yanar gizo. Bayanan na dauke da dukkan abubuwa da akayi rijista zuwa shekarar 2018 na jihohin kasar akalla 19. Masu binciken sun kara da cewa mambobin kungiyar masu kutsen sun hada kudi domin sayan wadannan bayanai wa rumbunan daidaikun mutane. Yayinda kundin masu zabe a jihohin nan ke cigaba da kasance a kasuwa, gwamnatocin jihohin sun tsananta damar da suke baiwa masu bincike ko yakin neman zabe. Bayan haka, masu binciken sun samu damar shiga daga karshe kawai saboda dubi ga irin bayanan da masu kutse ke da shi, akwai yiwuwan sun hada samun taimako daga wasu jami’an gwamnatin jihohin.

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A wani bincike da Anomali Labs and Intel471,yayi bincike kuma ya rubuta, an samu cewa ana tallan bayanan masu zabe na jihohin 19 da aka sace a wani shafin yanar gizon masu kutse.
Asali: Anomali Labs. “Estimated 35 Million Voter Records For Sale on Popular Hacking Forum.” Anomali, An duba 7 Maris 2019.

Ta yaya zan sani idan hakan na shafa na?

Kafafen yada labarai sun fara kawar da kai daga keta hurumi, fallasa da kutse kan bayanan mai zabe, saboda sun mayar da hankali kan labaran bogin gwamnatoci ko jam’iyyun siyasa idan lokacin zaben kasa ko kananan zabe ya kusanto. Sau da dama, masana shafukan yanar gizo, masu binciken tabbatar da tsaron yanar gizo, da shafukan watsa ilimi a yanar gizo na yiwa bayanan mai zaben da aka yiwa kutse kanikanci ta yadda wanda bai da ilimi mai zurfi kan kutse ba zai san an yi kutsen ba, ballanta ya sani ko ta shafe shi. Amma, a manyan faruwa, irin na 2017 da aka fallasa bayanan masu zabe milyan 200 a Amurka, a kafafen yada labarai aka fi amincewa da sihhancin labarin.

Abubuwan la’akari

↘Har yanzu, an ki bayyanawa jama’a cewa da bayanan mai zaben da aka fallasa, aka yiwa kutse, ko aka ketawa hurumi jam’iyyun siyasa ke amfani wajen yakin neman zabe na zamani. Yanayin yadda ake samun bayanin mai zabe a wadannan misalan, na nuna cewa ba a yi nazari mai zurfi cikin irin rawar da wannan kutsen da fallasan bayanan mai zabe ke takawa ba a yayin zabe. Amma abinda muka sani cewa akwai rahotannin kafafen yada labarai kan wasu masu kutse domin manufar siyasa irinsu Andrés Sepúlveda a Amurka ta kudu da lokutan da aka yi amfani da bayanan da aka yiwa kutse wajen rikita zabe.

↘ Dukkan abubuwan da ke tattare da wannan keta hurumi, fallasa, da kutsen da ke faruwa ya banbanta daga kasa zuwa kasa, kuma hakan ya sa ake samun tsaiko wajen kafa dokar da zata iya game illar gaba daya. Yayinda a wasu lokuta ana ikirarin cewa bayanan da aka yiwa kutse sun tsufa kuma ba’a bukatarsu, wasu bayanan da aka fallasa na da mumunan illa. Ala Misali, a Okotoban 2018, a mai binciken tsaro ya samu damar shiga wani runbun ajiyar kamfanin Rice Consulting, wani kamfanin tara kudi da jam’iyyar Democrat ta dauka aiki. Tare da bayanan mutanen da ke tara kudi, kama daga lambobin waya, sunaye, akwatin sakon email, zuwa adireshi, rumbun bayanan na kunshe da bayanan kwantaragi, jawaban ganawa, madadin ajiyan kwamfuta, da bayanan ma’aikata. Abu mafi muhimmanci, rumbun bayanan na dauke da yadda ake shiga NGP, runbun bayanan masu zabe da jam’iyyar Democrat ke amfani da shi.

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Ballin hoto wani takardan NGP kamar yadda aka gani a kutsen Rice Consulting. Diraktan binciken hadarin yanar gizo na kamfanin Hacken ne ya tsince bayanan, ta hanyar amfani da yanar gizon abubuwa.
Asali: Diachenko, Bob. “More than Just a Data Breach: A Democratic Fundraising Firm Exposure.” Hacken Blog, An duba 6 Maris 2019.

↘ A karshe, muhimmancin bayanin mai zabe na da girma, musamman idan aka fallasa a bainar yanar gizo Gaba daya akwai rashin lura da yadda ake ajiyan wadannan bayanan, yadda ake kiyaye su da yadda ake rike su. Yan siyasa, dillalan bayanai, da kamfanonin sadarwa na da hakkin rike bayanan da ke karkashinsu da kula mai kyau. Sauye-sauyen da aka yiwa dokar kare bayanai a gamayyar kasashen Turai EU ta daura laifin kutse, ko fallasa kan wadanda aka baiwa hakin kula, da kuma laifin bayyana abinda ya faru da wuri. Bisa wata safiyo da kamfanin yakin neman zabe yayi, masana ilimin kare yanar gizo sun yi gargadin cewa yawancin mutane basu daukan barazanar [kutse cikin zabe] da gaske kuma rashin tabbatar da tsaron daidaikun yan kasuwa ke sanya rauni cikin tsare bayanan mai zabe da mutuncin zabe.


  1. Matt Burgess, ‘The Emmanuel Macron Email Hack Warns Us Fake News Is an Ever-Evolving Beast’, Wired UK, 8 May 2017, accessed 13 March 2019,(Kutse cikin akwatin Email na Emmanuel Macron na gargadinmu kan cewa labaran bogi na da hadari, an duba 13 ga Maris 2019), https://www.wired.co.uk/article/france-election-macron-email-hack.
  2. Andy Greenberg, ‘Everything We Know About Russia’s Election-Hacking (Dukkan abubuwan da muka sani gabe kutsen zaben kasar Rasha) Playbook’, Wired, 9 June 2017, https://www.wired.com/story/russia-electionhacking-playbook/.
  3. Timothy Revell, ‘Hacking a US Electronic Voting Booth Takes Less than 90 Minutes’, New Scientist, accessed 6 March 2019, (Kutse cikin rumfar zaben Amurka cikin kasa da mintuna 90, an duba 6 ga Maris 2019) https://www.newscientist.com/article/2142428-hacking-a-us-electronic-voting-booth-takes-less-than-90-minutes/.
  4. James Lewis, ‘Economic Impact of Cybercrime’,(illan cuta a yanar gizo kan tattalin arziki) Center for Strategic & International Studies, accessed 12 March 2019, https://www.csis.org/analysis/economic-impact-cybercrime.
  5. Lewis, ‘Economic Impact of Cybercrime’. ,(illan cuta a yanar gizo kan tattalin arziki)
  6. ‘PA Full Voter Export’, Pennsylvania Department of State, accessed 11 March 2019, (Fitar da bayanan mai zabe, an duba 11 ga Maris 2019) https://www.pavoterservices.pa.gov/Pages/PurchasePAFULLVoterExport.aspx. ‘Statewide Voter File Information’,Montana Secretary of State, accessed 11 March 2019, https://sosmt.gov/elections/voter-fle/.
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  14. ‘Lebanese Embassies Expose the Personal Data of Registered Voters Living Abroad’,(Ofishohin jakadancin Lebanon ta fallasa bayanai masu zaben jihar dake zama a kasashen waje) SMEX: Channeling Advocacy, 6 April 2018, https://smex.org/lebanese-embassies-expose-the-personal-data-of-registered-voters-livingabroad/.
  15. Andrii Degeler, ‘Millions of Mexican Voter Records Leaked to Amazon’s Cloud (Miliyoyin bayanan masu zaben kasar Mexico ya fallasu cikin runbun Amazon), Says Infosec Expert’, Ars Technica, 25 April 2016, https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2016/04/millions-of-mexican-voter-records-leakedamazon-cloud/.
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  18. Robert Tait, ‘Personal Details of 50 Million Turkish Citizens Leaked Online, Hackers Claim’, (Bayanan mutanen kasar Turkiyya milyan 50 ya bayyana a yanar gizo, masu kutse sunyi ikirari) The Telegraph, 4 April 2016, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/04/04/personal-details-of-50-million-turkish-citizens-leakedonline-ha/.
  19. Andy Greenberg, ‘Hack Brief: Turkey Breach Spills Info on More Than Half Its Citizens’, Wired, 5 April 2016, (Kutse Turkiyya ya saki bayanan fiye da rabin yan kasar) https://www.wired.com/2016/04/hack-briefturkey-breach-spills-info-half-citizens/.
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  21. Craig Timberg and Tony Romm, ‘Disinformation Campaign Targeting Roy Moore’s Senate Bid May Have Violated Law, Alabama Attorney General Says’, The Washington Post, 27 December 2018, ( Da yiwuwan Yada labaran bogi kan yakin neman kujerarn majalisar Sanata Roy Bid ya saba doka, Antoni Janar na Alabama ya fadi) https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2018/12/27/disinformation-campaign-targeting-roymoores-senate-bid-may-have-violated-law-alabama-attorney-general-says/.
  22. Adam Entous and Ronan Farrow, ‘Private Mossad for Hire’, New Yorker, 11 February 2019, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/02/18/private-mossad-for-hire.
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