Manhajojin jirgin yakin neman zabe: Danna ka yi musharaka

Shin menene manhajojin

Manhajojin jirgin yakin neman zabe

Manhajoji ba na jin wakoki, siyayya ko neman motar haya bane kawai; lokaci ya zo sun fara zama kayan aikin yan siyasa da masu yakin neman zabe domin neman masoya da samun nasara a zabe. Manhajojin yakin neman zabe na iya shiga cikin daya ko biyun kashe-kashen nan guda uku:

Manhajojin wayar salula: An kirkiresu ne domin goyon bayan wasu yan takaran siyasa na musamman ko wata manufa ta musamman

Ingantattun manhajojin neman mabiya: An kerasu ne domin hada bayanan da aka tattara daga yawon gida-gida da neman masoya da kuma bayanan yakin neman zabe, wanda aka saya, da kuma na gwamnati.

↘ Wasanni da manhajojin da aka wasantar: An kirkiresu ne domin sammatan mabiya da kuma janyo hankalin sabbin masu zabe

Ta yaya suke aiki?

↘ Manhajojin waya na baiwa masu ra’ayin siyasa kebataccen wurin tattaunawa da hira sabanin manyan kafafen sada zumunta inda kowa ke bayyana ra’ayinsa. Wasu manhajojin na janyo hankalin mutane suyi musharaka ta hanyar wasantar da abin, kaman tsarashi ta yadda mutum zai rika samun maki ko girma idan ya kammala wani abu kaman kallon bidiyon kamfen, watsa sakon kamfen, baiwa ofishin kamfen lambobin mutanen da suka sani ko kiran wakilansu a waya don tattauna abubuwa.

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Wannan balin hoto ne daga wani labari a shafin uCampaign na manhajar yakin neman zaben shugabancin kasar Donald Trump a 2016, America First. Wanda ke nuna wasu ayyukan da zasu iya taimakawa mutane wajen samun maki a manhajar.
Asali: ‘Trump and Brexit used a new digital organizing tool to help achieve their surprise victories’, An duba 3 Disamba 2018.

↘ Ingantattun manhajojin neman mabiyan na baiwa masu yakin neman zaben sa kai damar ziyartan gidajen mutane sosai. Manhajojin kan ba masu yawon neman mabiyan cikakken bayanai kan gidajen da ke unguwar, da mazauna wajen, da jam’iyyar da suka yi rijista, lokutan da sukayi zabe a baya, da abubuwan da suka damu da shi. Hakazalika manahajojin zasu rika aiko jawabai da tambayoyin safiyo ga masu neman mabiyan domin su tambayi mazauna wani anguwa kan rayuwarsu. Yayinda suka ziyarci gidaje, za su daura bayanan da suka samu ta manhajar ciki kuma zai shiga rumbun bayanan uwar jam’iyyar kai tsaye. A bayan fagge kuwa, wadannan manhajojin na tattarawa da hada bayana rijistar zaben mai zabe, laifukan da suka taba aikatawa, da wasu bayanai kan mutane. Masu neman mabiya ko masoyan dake amfani da manhajar NGP VAN za su iya gabatar da manufofin dan takara kan abubuwan da ya shafi tsaffin Sojoji idan manhajar ta nuna cewa akwai tsohon Soja a gidan. Wadannan manhajojin za su iya amfani da wasu sinadaran wasantarwa, irinsu leaderboard.

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Ballin hoto daga wani bidiyon da NGP VAN ya daura a YouTube, wani kamfani dake yiwa yan takaran jam’iyyar Democrats aiki a AMurka. A nan, masu yakin neman zaben gida-gida sun yi amfani da wani manhajar neman mabiya dake daura bayanan mutane cikin runbun bayanan jam’iyyar kai tsaye. A wannan hoton, mai neman mabiyan na bude wani sashe a manhajar bayan ziyarar wani gida. Rubutun sake sashen na nuna: ‘Suna da kare mai kyau’.
Asali: ‘Mini VAN & Mini Van Manager’, An duba 20 Febrairu 2019

↘ Wasanni da manhajojin da aka wasantar: Duk da cewa babu alamun suna amfani da bayanan mutane kuma sun fi sauran biyun shahara, wasannin siyasa na yanar gizo irinsu CorbynRun (wanda aka kirkira don goyon bayan jam’iyyar Labour a Birtaniya) da Super Klaver (wanda ke goyon bayan jam’iyyar De Groenen a kasar Netherland) sun cancanci ambata saboda rawar ganin da suka taka. Wadannan wasannin da ke amfani da zane-zanen 8-bit da lo-f audio, na da saukin fahimta kuma zasu iya taimakawa wajen hada kan jama’a masu ra’ayin siyasa. Misali, gabatarwan da zaka gani idan ka bude manhajar CorbynRun shine: ‘muna cikin wani tsere da lokaci domin kawar da gwamnatin da aka gina kan magude….Tare zamu iya nasara!. Manhajar wasar Fiscal Kombat, wacce aka kirkira domin dan takaran zaben shugabancin kasar Faransa a 2017, Jean-Luc Mélenchon, na nuna dan takaran yana fada da abokan hamayya kan kudi yayinda masu kudi ke kokarin kayar da shi. A cikin manhajar wasa, Jean-Luc Mélenchon ya kalubalanci shugabar bankin lamunin duniya IMF, Christine Lagarde; dan siyasan Faransa, Jérôme Cahuzac, wanda aka hukunta kan laifin kin biyan haraji; da tsohon shugaban kasar Faransa, Nicolas Sarkozy. Ta hanyar hada wasa da harkokin siyasa masu muhimmanci, wasanni irin wannan na samar da sabbin hanyoyin wasa kwakwalkwa kan lamuran siyasa kuma a lokaci guda ana yin shi kamar wasa.

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Ballin hoto daga abin wasa Fiscal Kombat, wanda aka kirkira domin goyon bayan dan takaran shugaban kasan Faransa, Jean-Luc Mélenchon. Mélenchon na samun kudi daga Christine Lagarde, shugabar bankin lamunin duniya, domin samun kudin shirye-shiryensa.
Asali: ‘Fiscal Kombat’, An duba 20 Febrairu 2019

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Ballin hoto daga wani labari a shafin medium.com na maganar da wani yayi kan manhajar yakin neman zaben Ted Cruz a 2016. Jawabin mutane cewa an rike su ya nuna yadda manhajojin yakin neman zabe ke amfani da abubuwa daga cikin manhajojin wasa.
Asali: Peters, Thomas. ‘We Are the Stealth Startup that Helped Ted Cruz Win Iowa’ 5 Febrairu 2016.

Ta yaya ake amfani da bayananka?

Manhajojin jirgin yakin neman zabe na daukan bayanan iri-iri da zasu iya amfanar da yakin neman zaben da kerasu, wanda zai iya tsara manhajar ta hanyar da za ta rika tambayar karin bayanai daga mai amfani da ita. Sau da dama yin rijista kyauta ne, kuma a cewar masu kirkirar manhajojin, ana fansar kudin daga baya daga bayanan da aka yiwa tattarawa.

Manhajojin Kamfe na iya tattara ire-iren bayanai hudu:

↘ Bayanan da mai amfani da manhajar ya bada da kansa (Irinsu suna, akwatin email, lambar waya, jinsi da yawan shekaru).

↘ Bayanai akan kafafen sada zumuntar da mai amfani ke ciki. Wasu manhajojin na baiwa masu amfani la’ada idan suka raba lambobin da ke hannunsu, wanda masu yakin neman zaben za su yi amfani da shi wajen sanin masu zaben da zasu hara. Idan an lura akwai wani mai zabe da bai tsayar da ra’ayinsa ba tukun kan wanda zai zaba a wayar mai amfani da manhajar, za’a tursasa shi ya gayyaci wannan mai zaben zuwa manhajar da wani sako na musamman. Thomas Peters, shugaban manhajar siyasar uCampaign, ya yi bayanin yadda Ted Cruz a 2016 ya samu isa ga masu zabe da basu tsayar da ra’ayinsu ba bayan sun ganosu ta kundin masu zabe: ‘Idan muka gano cewa kana da abokai 10 a Iowa wadanda mabiya Cruz ne, toh zamu bukace ka da isar da sako ga wadannan mutanen’.

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Daya daga cikin hanyoyin da manhajojin yakin neman zabe ke amfani wajen tattara bayanai shine tambayan mutane su bayar da sunayen mutanen dake wayoyinsu. A nan, wani ballin hoto daga shafin uCampaign, kamfanin da ya samar da manhajar America Firsy domin goyon bayan yakin neman zaben Donald Trump, muna iya ganin yadda manhajar take tambayar mutane su bada daman duba sunayen wadanda wayoyinsu cikin wajen ajiyan GOTV. Manhajar na Mayuar da abin tamkar wasa ta hanyar lissafin adadin sakonnin da mutane suka tura domin cin wani abu.
Asali: ‘Trump and Brexit used a new digital organizing tool to help achieve their surprise victories’, An duba 3 Disamba 2018.

↘ Safiyo da gasa cikin manhaja na iya taimakawa da bayanan mutane ga masu kamfe A cewar Peters, ‘mabiya manhajar sun kammala sama da safiyo 20,000 akan kawunansu, abokansu, da makwabtansu, inda aka samu tattara bayanan ra’ayin siyasar mabiya da yawa, kusancinsu da yan raji, da bayanai masu muhimmanci ga yakin neman zabe. Duk da cewa abinda kamfanin Cambridge Analytica yayi amfani da shi ba manhaja bane, bayanan da ya tattara daga bibiyan dabi’ar mutane ya samo asali ne daga wata manhajar Facebook mai sune ‘This is Your Digital Life’, wacce take daya cikin gasannin samun bayanai da aka samu a shafinsu.

↘ Bayanan dabi’a daga tattaunawa a manhajar. Idan mai amfani da manhajar yayi tsokaci kan bidiyo maimakon rubutu, misali, za’a adana bayanin har zuwa lokacin da za’a samu cigaban manhajar da zai dauki jawaban bidiyo.

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Ballin hoto daga wani labari a shafin uCampaign kan manhajan Vote Leave dake nuna akwatunan da mutane zasu iya budewa don samun maki (AP). Hakazalika mutane zasu iya kwatanta makinsu da na wasu abokansu cikin manhajar da kuma wasu daban.
Asali: ‘Trump and Brexit used a new digital organizing tool to help achieve their surprise victories’, An duba 3 Disamba 2018.

Wasu misalai

A Indiya: An kaddamar da manhajar yakin neman zaben Firai Minista Narenda Modi, NaMo, ne a Yunin 2015, kuma an yi alkawarin kawo wa masu amfani da manhajar labarai da duminsu kan abubuwa masu muhimmanci game da gwamnatin Modi. A Maris 2018, an gano cewa manhajar akan wayoyin masu jinsin Andriod sun bukaci damarmmakin shiga dakunan bayanai akalla 22, wanda ya hada da damar shiga kamara, mikrofo, kundin ajiyar lambobi, hotuna, da inda kake. (Sabanin haka, manhajar Amazon a Indiya na bukatar damammaki 17) Kuma da alamun NaMO ta karbi bayanan mambobin National Cadet Corps milyan 1.3, wani reshen hukumar sojin Indiya, domin sawwaka tattaunawa tsakanin Firai Ministan da Sojojin.

A Jamhuriyyar Dominica: A 2012, Damilo Madina na jam’iyyar Dominican Liberation Party ya samu nasara a zaben shugabancin kasar Jamhuriyyar Dominica da kyar. Shekaru hudu bayan nasarar, bayan kashe kudi cikin ilmin fasahar kasarsa da rumbin yakin neman zabensa, an sake zaben Madina a karo na biyu da tazara mai yawa. Mutane sun sauke Manhajarsa, Danilo 2016, da kamfanin uCampaign ya gina sau 14,000 a kasar da ke da adadin mutane miliyan 10.65. Kimanin kashi 65% na masu amfani da manhajar sun shigar da kundin ajiyar lambobinsu ga jirgin yakin neman zaben, kusan dukkansu sun amince a turo musu sakonni koda yaushe. Ta manhajar, masu amfani kan duba abubuwan da ke faruwa, suna raba abubuwan a kafafen sada zumunta, suna kallon bidiyoyi, suna dauran hotunan kansu da shugaba Madina, suka sanya hanyoyin zuwa rumfar zabe, suka nuna kuri’ar da suka kada ranar zabe kuma suka gayyaci abokansu su shiga. A gaba daya, uCampaign ta ce an yi sama da 360,000 da ke nuna taimako ga tazarcen shugaba Madina. uCampaign ta yi alfaharin cewa an sauke manhajar da suka hada sama da sau 600,000 ga yan takarar siyasa da wasu manufofi daban cikin harsuna tara a kasashe 12.

A Faransa: Yayinda aka shirin zaben shugaban kasan 2017, kwamitin yakin neman zaben Nicolas Sarkozy ta kirkiri wata manhaja mai suna ‘Knockin’, wacce tayo taswiran rumbun adireshin mutanen da za’a ziyarta gida-gida. An dosana jan digo kan kowani adireshin gidan da za’a a ziyarta a taswiran tare da sunayen mazauna gidan. Masu yawon neman mabiya sun dira gidajen mutane kuma suka fara ambaton sunayensu ba tare da sun taba haduwa ba, hakan ya sabbaba korafe-korafe daga mutane kan yadda ake keta huruminsu kuma bincike daga hukumar kare hakkin bayanan mutan kasar Faransa ya yanke cewa manhajar Halas ce a doka.

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Ballin hoto daga Knockin, wani manhaja da dan takaran shugaban kasa Nicolas Sarkozy yak era kuma yake amfani. Manhajar na nuna wani taswira da jajayen digo wanda ke nufin magoyan bayan dan takara a gidajensu. An yi cece-kuce kan manhajar saboda kuma ana tuhumar kutse ne.
Asali: ‘France: Data Violations in Recent Elections’, 7 Disamba 2018.

Ta yaya zan san abinda ke faruwa da bayanai na?

Sanin ainihin bayanan da kake shigarwa a manhajoji na bukatar karanta ka’idojin hakkin srri, wanda kuma ya banbanta tsakanin manhaja zuwa manhaja kuma suna da matukar yawa da wuyan karantawa. Wata mafita ita ce gano dukkan manhajojin siyasan da ke wayarka kuma ga gudanar da binciken yanar gizo kan kowanne daga cikinsu. Ko da manhajojin kamfe sahihai ne, babu tabbacin akwai tsaro. Manhajar yakin neman zaben Ted Cruz, misali, ta fallasa lambar IMSI na masu amfani da ita, lambar IMSI wata lamba ce da ake amfani wajen gane mai waya kuma ana iya amfani da shi wajen bibiyan mutum da sanin abubuwan da ya ke aikatawa a wayarsa Ko da ko manhajojin masu tsaro za su iya (kuma sau da dama suna yi) ikirarin cewa suna da hakkin raba bayanan da suka karba da wasu abokan harkallan da suka ga dama, saboda haka ko ka karanta dukkan ka’idojin hakkin sirri kuma ka fahimci bayanan da ke baiwa masu kamfe, sanin abinda sukeyi da shi daga baya na da matukar wahala.

Abubuwa la’akari

↘ Gaba daya, masu yakin neman zabe na ikirarin cewa manhajoji na taimaka musu wajen gudanar da ayyukansu cikin aminci

↘ Manhajoji kan inganta yunkurin neman mabiya, wanda zai kara adadin masu musharaka a zabe

↘ Manhajoji na karban bayanai da yawa, kuma ana karban yawancin wadannan bayanan ba tare izinin mutum ba ko saninsa

↘Masu kada kuri’ar da basu son samun sakonni daga wasu masu kamfe na iya samun ana raba sunayensu, akwatin email, wuraren aikinsu, shafukansu na yanar gizo, da wasu bayanai ba tare da izininsu ko saninsu ba ta wani takardar adireshi da lambobi.

↘Ta hanyar samun dukkan bayanan mai zabe da kuma kimtsa masu yawon neman mabiya da maganganun da zasuyi, manhajojin neman mabiya na sa tattaunawa ya zama tamkar an san juna kafin yanzu, amma hakan kuma yayi kama da kutse

↘ Duk da cewa bi gida-gida kan taimaka wajen sanya mutane suyi zabe, amma shiga gidajen wadanda ake tunanin magoya baya ne da tsallake gidajen wadanda ake tunanin masu goyon bayan yan adawa ne na iya kawo matsala Kamfanonin da suka kware wajen kwankwasa kofofin mutane da kiran wadanda ya kamata na yunkurin gudun kada su bata lokaci da dukiya wajen wadanda ake zaton babu ruwansu da siyasa.

↘ Duk da cewa wasantar da manhajojin kamfe kan taimakawa masu manyan maki wajen karin girma da mutunci, akwai yiwuwan zasu rika raina wadanda ke da kananan maki tare kalubalantarsu kan ilimin siyasa

↘ Saboda manhajoji na janyo hankulan mutanen masu tunani iri daya da kuma watsi da manufar hada kan jama’a da manyan kafafen sada zumunta keyi, akwai yiwuwan hura wutan banbance-banbance tsakanin mutane

↘ Saboda wadannan abubuwan zamani na iya rayuwa har bayan zabe, suna samar da kakar yakin neman zabe maras karewa.


  1. Haley Thompson, ‘How NPG VAN’s Software Fixed Canvassing’, Chronicle of the Week, 16 April 2018, (Yadda na’urar kwamfyutan NPG VAN ya gyara Canvassing) https://chronicleweek.com/2018/04/ngp-vancanvass-solution/, accessed 3 December 2018.
  2. ‘Episode 41: Online Political Games’ (Wasannin siyasan yanar gizo) Simplecast (podcast), 1 January 2018, https://simplecast.com/s/7a499a50, accessed 3 December 2018.
  3. https://corbynrun.com/, accessed 3 December 2018.
  4. ‘Fiscal Kombat: French presidential candidate Jean-Luc Melenchon stars in video game’, 11 April 2017, https://www.bbc.com/news/worldeurope-39569301, accessed 20 February 2019.
  5. Sean J. Miller, ‘Should down-ballot campaigns invest in an app?’, Campaigns & Elections, 12 April 2017, (Shin ya kamata masu yakin neman zabe su sanya hannun jari cikin manhaja) https://www.campaignsandelections.com/campaign-insider/should-down-ballot-campaigns-invest-in-an-app, accessed 20 February 2019.
  6. Thomas Peters, ‘We Are the Stealth Start-up that Helped Ted Cruz Win Iowa’, Medium (blog), 5 February 2016, (Mune kamfanin da suka taimakawa Ted Cruz wajen nasara a Iowa) https://medium.com/@uCampaignCEO/meet-the-stealth-startup-that-helped-ted-cruz-win-iowa-fea6745b8a6d, accessed 3 December 2018.
  7. Scott Detrow, ‘Cruz’s Crew: You Play the Game but It’s the Campaign that Scores’, NPR’s Morning Edition, 9 November 2015, https://www.npr.org/2015/11/09/455225893/cruzs-crew-you-play-the-game-but-its-thecruz-campaign-that-scores, accessed 5 July 2018. (Kana buga wasan amma jirgin yakin neman zaben ke nasara, an duba 5 ga Yuli, 2015)
  8. Peters, ‘We Are the Stealth Start-up that Helped Ted Cruz win Iowa’(Mune kamfanin da suka taimakawa Ted Cruz wajen nasara a Iowa)
  9. The day after these fndings were published, the app’s privacy policy was updated to allow sharing of data with third parties. Krishn Kaushik, ‘Narendra Modi App asks for sweeping access’, The Indian Express, 26 March 2018, (Kwana daya bayan wallafa wannan binciken, an gyara sharuddan sirrin mutum a manhajar don waji na waje ya gani) https://indianexpress.com/article/india/namo-app-asks-for-sweeping-accesscamera-audio-among-22-inputs-facebook-data-leak-5111353/, accessed 4 December 2018.
  10. Aman Sharma, ‘Modi’s digital cabinet: NaMo mobile app to tap ministers and MPs’, The Economic Times, 1 August 2016 (Majalisar zartaswar Modi a yanar gizo: manhajar NaMo domin bibiyan ministoci da yan majalisu) https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/modis-digital-cabinet-namomobile-app-to-tap-ministers-mps/articleshow/53482384.cms, accessed 4 December 2018
  11. Thomas Peters, ‘We built the app that helped reelect the president of the Dominican Republic by a landslide’(Mu muka taimaka wajen gin manhajar da ta taimawa shugaban kasar Dominica ta zarce da tazara mai yawa.), Medium (blog), 22 May 2016, https://medium.com/@uCampaignCEO/we-built-the-app-that-helped-reelectthe-president-of-the-dominican-republic-by-a-landslide-28cf3666c050, accessed 20 February 2019.
  12. Judith Duportail, ‘The 2017 Presidential Election: The arrival targeted political speach in French Poliitics’, Tactical Tech, https://ourdataourselves.tacticaltech.org/media/ttc-influence-industry-france.pdf, accessed 20 February 2019.
  13. Tim Starks, ‘Report: Presidential campaign apps failing to safeguard data’, Politico, 25 April 2016, ( Rahoto: Manhajojin yakin neman zabe na kin kare bayanai) https://www.politico.com/story/2016/04/2016-campaign-apps-fail-222394, accessed 3 December 2018.
  14. NGP VAN promotional video, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xY0ZaIONwjI, accessed 20 February 2019.
  15. Aarti Shahani, ‘Mobile Apps: a digital take on political canvassing’, (Manhajojin wayar salula: ra’ayi kan yakin neman masoya a zabe) NPR, 1 November 2012, https://www.npr.org/2012/11/01/164129881/ mobile-apps-a-digital-take-on-political-canvassing, accessed 3 December 2018.