Bayanan mutane: Makamashin wutar yakin neman zabe a kafafen zamani

Menene bayanan mutane?

A fadaden bayani, bayanan mutane shi ne bayanin da zai taimakawa kamfanonin sadarwa, dilallai ko ‘yan kasuwa wajen fahimtar bukatun daidaikun abokai ko kungiyoyin ciniki. Irin wannan bayanai su kan taimakawa dillalai wajen kirkirar karin bayanai na wasu mutane na musamman, wadanda ake saidawa ko ake mikawa kamfanonin da su ke harin abokan cinikinsu – ko kuma a fagen siyasa, masu kada kuri’a – lura da dabi’a da bukatunsu.

A rubutunsa na ‘Audience Lookbook’, kamfanin dillancin Experian ya yi ikirarin cewa rumbunsa na Amurka ya na dauke da danyen bayanani daga mutane fiye da miliyan 300 da gidaje miliyan 126, bayanan tarihin fiye da shekaru 50, dubunnan bayanai game da adadin al’umma, yanayin cefane, halaye, abin sha’awa, da dabi’u2. Da wadannan bayanai, Experian ya cika-baki cewa zai iya tuntubar kashi 85% na mutanen Amurka ta akwatunan email miliyan 5003, ya kuma rarraba mutane zuwa kaso 71, misali ta fannin sha’anin tattali da mahangar kabila. Experian ya yi ikirarin cewa wannan bayanai za su taimakawa kamfanoni wajen isa ga ‘mutanen da su ka kamata’ da ‘sakonnin da su ka dace’. 4 Kamfanin ba ya tsaya ga tallata bayanansa ga ‘yan kasuwa ba ne: Kason akidar siyasar da aka yi zuwa irinsu ‘Rikakkun mabiyan Democrats’ da ‘Masu ra’ayin gargajiya’ domin ba jam’iyyun siyasa idon hangen al’amura, dabi’u da abin da abubuwan da ke tashe a wurin masu zabe.5 Amfanin irin rukunin wannan bayanai ya zarce fahimtar abokan ciniki, har ya kai ga ya ratsa cikin ‘yan kallo a lamarin siyasa.

Experian_data_sources Experian_info_graphic_snippet

Wuraren samun bayanai da yadda ake amfani da su kamar yadda Experian tayi talla.
Asali: Experian. ‘Consumer View Data | Experian Marketing Services,’ 2 Mayu 2018.
Asali: ‘ConsumerView - Data by the Numbers.’ Experian Marketing Services, An duba 22 Febrairu 2019.

Tarin bayanan da ake da su a yau ya na karuwa ninkin-baninki. Kamar yadda rahoton Demos game da makomar yakin neman zabe ya nuna, IBM ta yi hasashen akwai kimanin quintillion 2.5 na ma’aunin bayanai da ake samu duk rabar Duniya a kowane bangare na tattalin arziki6. Irin bayanan da ake tattarowa sun hada da abubuwa masu saukin samu kamar shekaru, yawan iyali zuwa ga abubuwa kamar wasan kwaikwayon da mutum ya fi sha’awa ko kuma irin motar da ya ke hawa7. Kai har ma ta kai kamfanin motocin General sun samu lasisin bin diddigin bayanai da su ka hada da halayen mutum a cikin mota, irin abubuwan da ya ke sauraro a cikin motar da tallar da ake kawowa mutum8. Idan aka nutsa a cikin wannan babi, a binciken masanin fasaha kuma mai nazari, Wolfe Christl wanda aka yi wa take da ‘Yadda kamfanoni ke bibiyar mu a rayuwa ta kullum’ an raba wannan bayanai zuwa ga wadanda aka samu ta hanyar sa-kai, sa-ido, fahimta, da kuma bayanai na ainihi9. Wurare da-dama irinsu kafafen sadarwan zamani kamar Facebook, Google da Amazon, kamfanonin sadarwa (Su na amfani da wata manhaja da ke binciken biliyoyin bayanai daga layin salula), kafafen yada labarai, gidajen jaridu, masu ciniki da hada-hada kamar bankuna da kamfanonin da ke bada bashi su kan zama tushen samun bayanai10. Alal misali kamfanin Spotify, su kan saida bayanai game da abin da mutane su ke sauraro, zuwa ga wuraren da su ke da halin da su ke ciki. A zamanin cigaba, kamfanonin zamani kamar masu bada damar hawa yanar gizo da amfani da manyan salula sun zama dillalan bayanai12 masu zaman kansu.

Ta ya ake amfani da bayanaina a wajen zabe?

Bayanan mutane, makamashin wuta ne na aikin yakin neman zabe ta kafafen zamani13. Su ke jan ragamar duk wasu dabaru da na’urori da ake amfani da su a yakin zabe wajen nazarin masu kada kuri’a. A fadin Duniya, yakin neman zabe ta hanyar amfani da bayanai da na’urori wurin tallata hajoji ya na karuwa.

Ainihin tushen samun bayanan da ake yakin neman zabe su ne:

Dillalan da aka sani: A kan samu bayanai wajen yakin neman zabe kai-tsaye daga manyan dillalan bayanai irinsu Acxiom, 14 Epsilon15 da Experian (har da kamfanin kasar Brazil, Serasa Experian) wanda ya mallaki bayanan da su ka fi na kowa a kasashen Latin16 da ake aiki da jam’iyyun siyasa a cikin abokan cinikinsu. Bayan babban zaben Birtaniya na shekarar 2017, ofishin ministan yada labarai ya ci tarar shafin yanar gizon Emma’s Diary wanda ke bada shawarari na renon jarirri da kula da juna biyu17 ga masu juna biyu bisa laifin karbar bayanai a saidawa jam’iyyar Labor, ta hanyar wata yarjejeniyar saida bayanai ga kamfanin Experian. Shafin ya tattara miiliyoyin bayanan sunayen iyaye, adireshi, adadin iyali a kowane gida, da ranar haihuwa, ya saidawa Experian18, wanda su kuma su ka kirkirarwa jam’iyyar Labor wani rumbun bayanai da aka tanada domin aikawa mutane sakon yakin zabe. Wannan lamari ya shahara sakamakon ICO ta gano cewa an saba doka. Duk da haka yunkurin da jam’iyyun siyasa su ke yi na karbar bayanai daga kamfanonin dillanci ya yi kamari. Hukumar kula da zabe ta kasar Birtaniya ta fitar da bayanai a fili da ke nuna manyan jam’iyyun kasar sun kashe makudan kudi a kan kamfanin Experian kudi. 19

EC_spending_database_screenshot

Wani ballin hoton da ke nuna sakamakon bincike bayan an nemi bayani kan yadda jam’iyyu suka kashe kudi a runbun bayanan hukumar gudanar da zaben Birtaniya a Experian.
Asali: ‘The Electoral Commission - Spending on Experian’ Search - The Electoral Commission. An duba Maris 7, 2019

Kafafen yanar gizo: Yayin da manyan dillalai su ke cikin manyan hanyoyin samun bayanai wurin jam’iyyun siyasa, manyan kafafen yanar gizo sun bi sahun masu dillacin. Kamfanoni irinsu Facebook da Google da manhajojinsu irinsu (Gmail, YouTube, Instagram da Facebook Messenger), su na bada dama ga ‘yan kasuwa da masu talla su samu bayanai na kansu. A tsakiyar shekarar 2018, adadin wadanda su ke amfani da kafar Facebook (har da shafukansu na WhatsApp, Instagram da Messenger) a kowane wata ya kai mutum biliyan 2.5. 20

A bangare guda, Google ya na ikirarin kowane guda a takwas daga cikin manhajojinsa ya samu mutum biliyan daya da ke amfani da shi, tare da mutane biliyan biyu da su ke kan manhajar Android a yanzu haka. 21

Ba wai kawai wadannan kamfanonin biyu sun tara runbun bayanai ba ne, su ne suka mamaye Duniyar tallar hajja a kafafen zamani da hannun jari na kimanin kasha 65% a 201722. Tsarin kasuwancinsu ya dogara ne sosai ga bada dama ga masu amfani da su, su tallata hajarsu ga jama’a. Sirrin Facebook da Google ya ingantawa dillalan da aka sani damar cusa bayanan mutane a cikinsu; Kamfanonin Acxiom23 da Serasa Experian24 ne su ka bada bayanan jama’a da Facebook ke kasuwanci da shi. Ganin irin karfin bayanan da ke gabansu da kuma dukiyar bayanan da su ka samu, kafafen yanar gizo su kan yi wa masu yakin neman zabe a fadin Duniya aikin, su kuma taimaka masu da daidai abubuwan da su ke bukata.

Dabaru biyu masu karfi da kafafen nan su ke badawa sun hada da kamanta bayanan mutum da ke cikin rumbunsu (wanda Facebook25 da Google su ke yi a kan masu amfani da su26) da kuma doguwar bibiyar mutane da ake yi (masu kamanceceniyar kamanni a shafin Facebook27 da Google28). Ta hanyar wallafa jerin masu amfani da shafinsu kai-tsaye, masu talla ko aikin yakin zabe za su iya samun mutanen da su ka dace da masu amfani da wadannan shafuka wajen lura da bayanansu irinsu suna, lambar waya, adireshin akwatin email, da adireshin sako, daga nan sai a tuntubesu tare da amincewarsu. Dabara ta biyu ita ce wanda shafukan za su bada damar da za a lura da ayyuka da dabi’un mutane domin ayi kicibis da abin da masu talla ko yakin neman zabe su ke bukata. Da zarar an dace, za a iya amfani da wannan mutumi da aka samu wajen aika masa sakon talla.

Facebook-Advertising-Government-and-Politics

Ballin hoton nasarori a zabe kamar yadda Facebook Business tayi talla a Oktoba 2016. Tuni an cire sashen “Gwamnati da Siyasa”.
Asali: ‘Success Stories about Facebook Advertising: Government and Politics | Facebook for Business.’, 22 Oktoba 2016, retrieved from web.archive.org

Masu binciken bayanan siyasa: Yayin da dillalai da kafafen yanar gizo su ke alfahari da kamfanoni da dama a matsayin abokan cinikinsu, kamfanonin da ke bincike a kan harkar siyasa irinsu i360 – Kamfanin binciken kasar Amurka wanda ya ke samun tallafi mai tsoka daga hannun Koch brothers29 – su na amfani da ilminsu na bayanai musamman ga ‘yan siyasa da yakin neman zabensu. i360 su na tallata rumbun bayanan Amurkawa miliyan 290 tare da bayanai fiye da 700 da babu irinsu; wadanda duk ake tatso su daga alkaluman masu kada kuri’a daga kowace jiha da hannun masu bada bayanai30. Haka zalika, akwai bayanan da ke taimakawa wajen gane akidar mutum ta hanyar duba kungiyoyin da ya ke ciki, misali kungiyoyin masu mallakar bindiga, ko tsofaffin sojoji, zuwa ga irin mujallun da mutum ya karantawa, da karfin arzikin arzikinsa da dai sauransu31. Aristotle kan bada tarin bayanai dauke da tarihi, adadin iyali, da halayyar mutane32. An samu masu nazarin bayanan siyasa da su ka yi amfani da bayanai cikin dabarunsu a zaben kasashen Brazil33, Argentina34, da Indiya35, kadan ma kenan.

i360_database_info_graphic

Abubuwan da runbun ya kunsa don yakin neman zabe, ya hada da bayanan mutane sama da 700, kamar yadda i360 tayi talla.
Asali: ‘The Database - i-360.’ i360, An duba 1 Maris 2019

Wasu hanyoyi: Bayan sauran bayanai da ake saidawa a kasuwa, masu nazarin bayanan siyasa su na komawa sababbun hanyoyi na daban domin su kara fahimtar masu kada kuri’a a zabe. Tatso bayanai da bincikensu a fili ya zama sabon dabara wajen yakin neman zabe. Kamar yadda wata tawaga ta masana ilmin kera mutum-mutumi mai kwankwalwa a jami’ar Stanford su ka nuna, zai yiwu ayi hasashen adadi da yadda za a kada kuri’u a zaben kasar Amurka ta hanyar amfani da hotunan motoci a shafin Google. 36 Abin da su ka gano a bincikensu ya hada cewa wuraren da aka mallaki kananan motoci fiye da manyan motocin hawa za su fi karkata ga jam’iyyar Democrats. 37 HaystaqDNA, wani kamfanin bayanai da ya yi aiki a jirgin yakin neman zaben Barack Obama da Bernie Sanders ya yi bincike a kan wasu hotuna domin gano mutanen da su ke amfani da na’urar samun wuta ta karfin rana – wanda wannan ya ke da matukar amfani ga ‘yan siyasa wajen fahimtar mutanen da su ke kula da sha’anin muhalli. 38

Abubuwan la’akari

↘ Bayanan masu kada kuri’a ya na da matukar amfani wajen mallakar bayanai a yakin neman zabe.

↘ ’Yan takara da masu yakin neman zaben siyasa za su iya lakantar abin da mai kada kuri’a ya ke bukata da ra’ayinsa, da kuma inda ya karkata a kan batutuwa, wanda wannan zai sanar da yakin zaben game da wasu halaye. ‘Dan takarar da ya samu fahimta zai iya magana kai-tsaye a kan ainihin abin da ya damu mai zabe, sannan kuma bayanan mutane ya na inganta karfin fahimta.

↘ A wannan zamani na yau, damar danganta bayanan mutane daga wasu tarin bayanai daga kamfanoni da-dama, da kafofi, na’urori da manhajoji, ya kawo mu ga lokacin da ake bibiyar masu zabe a ko da yaushe, ana lura, bincike da nazari, rarrabasu zuwa kashi-kashi da bangarori daban-daban. 39


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