Sauraron bayanai a kafafen zamani: Daga dandalin sada zumunta

Menene sauraron bayanai a kafafen zamani?

Idan ka bayyana ra’ayinka game da Brexit ko Trump a Twitter, watakila ba ka tunanin wani sashen abin da ka rubuta zai zama nazarin ra’ayin jama’a a game da batun. Wannan sabon fage ne da aka kirkiro daga abin da mutane su ke fada a dandalin sada zumunta – tare da ra’ayin wasunsu – ayi nazarin abin da aka wallafa domin binciken ra’ayin daidaikun masu kada kuri’a da daukacin ra’ayin al’umma. Ko da kungiyoyin NGO da malaman makaranta su na wallafa mafi yawan abin da binciken da aka yi ta sauraro a kafafen sadarwa ya nuna, ana saida hanyar da ake bi wajen binciken a matsayin dabarun tattaro bayanai domin aikin yakin neman zabe. 1, 2

Sauraron bayanai a kafafen zamani wani sunan kudin goro ne da ake yi wa nazari da binciken abin da mutum ya yi ko ya fada a dandalin sada zumunta irinsu Facebook da Twitter. Ana yin nazari a kan dukkanin abubuwan da ake yi (maimata sako, nuna sha’awar sako, yada hoto ko tofa albarkacin baki a game da batu) da kuma gundarin (sakonnin tweets da sakonni masu makin #, maganganu da tofa albarkacin da jama’a su ke yi) .3

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A wannan labari da aka yi a 2015, Crimson Hexagon ya yi bayanin cewa wasu binciken da aka gudanar kan masu zabe a Birtaniya. Labarin ya bayyana cewa wadanda basu da ra’ayin wani takamammen dan siyasa a kafafen sada zumunta sun fi ra’ayin Jihadi sau 40 fiye da mambobin jam’iyyar Labour dake da ra’ayin namomin daji sau.
Asali: Crimson Hexagon, ‘Voter Interests UK Election | Affinity Analysis Politics’, An duba 12 Maris 2019.

Kamfanonin da su ke yin wannan aiki su na kokarin duba wani zance jama’a su ke tattaunawa a kai a lokacin ko kuma su lura da inda mutane su ka karkata game da batun, misali ko mutane sun gamsu ko kuma ba su yi na’am da wani ‘dan takara ba. Wani daga cikin irin wannan kamfanoni Bakamo Social wanda ya ke aiki da gwamnatoci, kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu, da jam’iyyun siyasa, sun yi bayanin jerin irin ayyukan da su ke yi ta hanyar sauraro a kafafen zamani a shafinsu na yanar gizo; ‘Bakamo su kan yi aikin da ya zarce duba ra’ayoyin jama’a da inda aka karkata. Daga burbushin bayanan da mu ka samu, mu kan kirkiro zancen da mutane su ke sha’awar tsoma baki a tattauna. Mun lakanci harkar tattaunawa, tsara abubuwa gwargwadon bukatu, gano abubuwan da su ke tunzura mutane wajen yin zabi da dai sauransu. Daga asalin muryarsu, za ka fahimci ainihin dabi’ar mutane da ba ka taba tsammani ba.’4

Ta ya ya ke aiki?

A da can, wadanda su ke tsara harkar siyasa da yakin neman zabe su kan yi amfani ne da kirar waya, binciken ra’ayin jama’a da yunkurin jin ta-bakin mutane da duba yanayin tafiyar siyasa. Sauraro a kafafen zamani ya na ba su damar yin irin wannan bincike da aka saba, amma cikin ‘dan lokaci, da karancin kayan aiki, kuma ayi nazarin dinbin jama’a. A lokacin da aka kammala binciken nan da wasu bayanai irinsu jerin mabiyan jama’a (a dandalin sada zumunta) ko wurin zamansu, za a iya auna ra’ayin wasu kayadaddun jama’a ta hanyar sauraro a kafafen zamani, wanda wannan ya sa ya zama babban kayan aiki wajen ‘yan takara da masu yakin zabe.

Sauraron bayanai ta kafafen zamani ya kunshi abubuwa biyu da zamani ya inganta; samun bayanai da nazarin bayanai. Na farko ana samun bayanai da wata manhaja da ake kira ‘Scrappers’ daga dandalin sada zumunta, sakonnin Twitter da aka samu daga makin # ko kuma daidaikun mutane ko kuma daga dunkalen maganganun da mutane su ke yi a dandalin Facebook. Ana kuma samun bayanai daga dabi’u wanda ke nuna abubuwan da ake yi a dandalin kamar yada sakonni a Twitter ko kuma nuna sha’awar sako a Facebook. Za a iya amfani da wadannan abubuwa domin gane irin kallon da aka yi wa batu. Daga nan, ana yin nazari a kan wadannan bayanai ta wasu dabarun aiki domin a zakulo wasu karin bayanai, misali ko sakon Twitter ya na nuna ra’ayi mai kyau ko maras kyau game da wani lamari bisa la’akari da kalmomin da aka yi amfani da su da yadda su ka wakana. Mafi yawa nwannan nazari ya dogara ne da sabon cigaban da aka samu a harkar fasahar NLP, wani irin fasaha da ya ke bincike a kan tarin kalmomi. An tsara NLP ne ta yadda zai duba ra’ayi mai kyau ko akasin haka a cikin kalmomi da kuma kirkirar sababbin dokoki domin ana kara bincike wanda zai fadada aikin ta bayan tsawon lokaci.

Fasahar sauraron bayanai ta kafafen zamani su kan karfafi juna maimakon wasu na’urori su sa a daina amfani da su. Misali wani kamfanin safiyo, YouGov ya dade ya na tattarawa jam’iyyun siyasa, kamfanoni da gwamnatoci ra’ayin mutane ta email da wasu hanyoyin yanar gizo. A 2018, YouGov ya mallaki wani kamfani da ake kira Potent.IO domin bunkasa karfin aikinsu. 5 Portent.IO, da ya koma YouGov Signal, ya kan yi nazarin sakonni da binciken halaye a Twitter domin tace fahimtar mutane daga abubuwan da su ke yi da ra’ayoyinsu da karfin kasuwa. Ana yin wannan ne domin fahimtar kallon da ake yi wa kamfani, mutum, ko masu yakin neman zabe, wanda wannan ya na da amfani ga ‘yan siyasa wajen fahimtar yadda za su kara daraja a idanun masu shirin kada kuri’a. 6

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Ballin hoto daga wani labara na kamfanin MeltWatr na nuna yadda suka auna ra’ayoyin mutane game da yakin neman zaben shugabancin kasan Uhuru Kenyatta da Raila Odinga.
Asali: Philippa Dods, ‘Kenya-Elections-Online-Media-Analysis’, South Africa — Meltwater (blog), An duba 12 Maris 2019, .

Ta ya ake amfani da bayananka?

Bayanan da masu yakin neman zabe su ka samu daga dandalin sada zumunta za su iya cin ma manufofi da-dama:

↘ Bayanan za su taimakawa jirgin yakin neman zabe wajen fahimta ko ‘dan takara ko wani batu ya samu karbuwa ko akasin haka, yadda ake maganar lamarin.

↘ Bayanan za su iya nuna abin da mutane su ka damu da shi ta hanyar nazarin abin da aka fi magana a kansa ko kuma lamarin da ya ke tashe a daukacin lokacin zabe.

↘ Manhajar za ta kuma iya taimakawa wajen gane masu aika sakon siyasa ta hanyar duba wanda ya fi nutsawa a dandalin sada zumuntan zamani kuma ya ke da ra’ayi mai kyau game da yakin zaben.

NUVI, wata na’urar lura da Brickfsh ya kera ya na aiki ne kaco-kam game da sha’anin siyasa. Babban kanun shafin siyasarsu ya na cewa: “Ka fahimci abin da ya ke da muhimmanci ga masu jefa maka kuri’a a kowane lokaci. Ka lura da abubuwan da masu kada maka kuri’a su ke yayi, ka samu ka tsaya a samun tunanin da ake yi.’ 7

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NUVI, wan kamfanin hakar bayanai a kafafen sada zumunta dake zaune a Utah, na yiwa masu yakin neman zabe talla. Wannan ballin hoton daga shafinsu ya nuna bayani kan yadda aka tsara jinsin masoya, inda suke da zama, ma’aikata ne ko yiwuwan canzawa. Abubuwa irin wannan zasu yi amfani wajen shirya sakon yakin neman zabe.
Asali: ‘Politics - NUVI - Real-Time Social Intelligence’, An duba 12 Maris 2019.

Daga cikin ayyukan da su ke yi shi ne taimakawa ‘yan siyasa zama kar da abin da masu zabe su ke tunani a kai, kirkiro jerin masu yada sakonninka da masu kawo maka tasgaro, da kuma zama cikin shiri a lokacin da ake maganar wasu batutuwa, [auna] ra’ayin mutane game da wasu zance da [tsara] bayanan tattaunawar da ake yi nan take domin samunsa a wayoyin salularka.’ 8

Kamfanin Crimson Hexagon wanda ya kware wajen sauraron bayanai a kafafen zamani ya yi bayani dalla-dalla na yadda su ke fahimtar zancen siyasa daga dandalin sada zumunta. Misali a kwanan nan sun yi nazarin ‘yan takarar da aka fi tattaunawa a kansu lokacin da su ka bayyana kudirinsu na fitowa takarar shugaban kasar Amurka a 2020. Kamar yadda bayanansu ya nuna, a karshen shekarar 2018 a lokacin da Kamala Harris ta sanar da cewa za ta tsaya takara a Junairun 21, an samu sakonni 191, 000 a shafin Twitter a game da takararta. Shi ma Bernie Sanders an samu sakoanni 191, 000 a shafin Twitter a kan takararsa lokacin da ya bada sanarwar shiga takara a ranar 19 ga watan Fubrairu. 9 Sun kuma auna ra’ayoyin jama’a a game da zaben, su ka gano cewa masu zabe da-dama sun yi ‘fushi’ a kan muhimman baturuwa kamar sauyin yanayi da gudun hijira; wasu mutane sun ji ‘tsoro’, wasu sun yi ‘murna’ da shiga takarar wasu bakin ‘yan siyasar. 10

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A Oktoba 2018, kasar Canada ta zama kasa ta farko a duniya da ta halatta amfani da ganyen wiwi don wasa. Crimson Hexagon, wani kamfanin dake zaune a Houston ya bibiyi yadda mutane sukayi karbi labarin a yanar gizo.
Asali: ‘Canada Has Legalized Weed and Banff National Park Is Loving It’, An duba 12 Maris 2019.

Wani kamfani, Ossalabs, su na tallata na’urarsu da ke auna tasirin zabe musamman wajen aikin kamfe. 11 Ossalabs su na talla cewa da na’urarsu za su iya taimakawa ‘yan siyasa shiryawa tambayoyin mutane ta hanyar sanin sa idanu a inda mutane su ka dosa sannan su tanadi yadda za su bullowa kananan matsaloli da za su iya kawo masu cikas wajen masu zabe tun kafin su yi kamari, ‘tanadi hari daga abokan gaba’ da fahimtar batutuwan da ake tattaunawa a kansu. 12

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Za’a iya cimma sauraron abinda mutum ke fadi ta hanyoyi da dama. Kamfanin OssaLabs, dake da zama a Virginia, ya yi bayanin yadda masu yakin neman zabe zasu iya amfani da su wa wannan ballin hoton da aka samo daga shafinsu. Sunan wannan kamfani ya samo asali ne daga Ossa, wata abin bautar yan kasar Girka.
Asali: ‘Political Campaigns’, OssaLabs, An duba 12 Maris 2019.

Wadannan kamfanon uku sun nuna na’ukan ra’ayoyin da za a iya karanta, a sanar da ‘yan takara ko maganar da su ke yi ta na tasiri ko akwai bukatar su sake salo domin su samu karbuwa.

Wasu misalai:

A kasar Taiwan: Kamfanin AutoPolitic ya yi aiki a kan yakin neman zaben Taipei a 2014. AutoPolitic kamar yadda su ka fada. ‘su kan rikida dandalin sada zumunta zuwa kafar nazari.’ 13 Sabon shiga takara, gwamnan birnin Taipei, Ko Wen-je, ya yi aiki da AutoPolitic. A wurin yakin neman zaben Dr. Ko. Kamfanin ya auna tunanin mutane domin fahimtar ‘zancen da jama’a su ka fi damuwa da su, (da kuma dalilin hakan), su wanene su ke juya akalar zance (domin su tuntube su) da kuma zancen da wadannan mutane su ka fi damuwa da su.’ 14 Kamfanin ya bada jeringiyar ayyuka, ya kuma jero su bisa hasashen da su ka yi a kan yadda za a tofa albarkacin baki a kansu a yanar gizo. Sun karkare da cewa ya kamata Dr. Ko ya shawo kan matasa ta ayyukan da su ka saba na yin tambari a jiki, rawa a titi, wasan kwallon kwando da tuka keke. Dr. Ko ya yi amfani da wannan shawara ya kai ziyara zuwa wani gidan da ake zana tambari a jiki, wanda aka yabawa wannan aiki domin an yi ta yada shi a kafafen sadarwa na zamani.15

A kasar Indiya: Germin8 Social Intelligence wani kamfanin kasar Indiya ne da ya shigo da sauraron bayanai a kafafen yada labarai cikin harkar siyasa. Germin8 manhahar yanar gizo ce da ke lura da tattaunawar da mutane su ke yi kamar muhawara a dandalin Twitter ko zaurukan Facebook.16 Sun wallafa binciken wannan tattaunawa da su ka yi a gaf da zaben 2014 da sakamakon a yanar gizo ga duk wanda ya ke sha’awar amfani da shi.

Sakamakon ya nuna cewa jam’iyyar Bharatiya Janata (BJP) ta fi samun sakonni masu dadin ji, yayin da jam’iyyar Aam Aadmi ta samu suka a kan karkatar da ta yi wajen sha’anin yaki da rashin gasliya. Wani kakakin kamfanin Germin8 ya yi bayanin yadda watakila wannan ya yi tasiri ga sabon shiga zabe. Hakan ya nuna yadda za a iya amfani da sauraron ta kafafen yada labarai domin samun bayanai da za a iya amfani da su a matsayin tsarin yakin neman zabe. 17

Ya za ayi in san ko ana sa mani ido?

Kamfanonin da ke sauraron bayanai ta kafafen sadarwan zamani su kan yi aiki ne da abin da aka fada a ‘fili’. Akwai nuku-nuku a game da yadda ake lura da abin da mutane su ke fada a dandulan sada zumunta. Wasu kungiyoyi su kan fito karara su bayyana cewa su na dandalin Twitter ne domin sa ido a kan abin da ake yi; wasu kuma ba su yin wannan. Wannan ya sa ya ke da wahala mutum ya tabbatar ko a na lura da shi. Za ka iya sa a ran ka cewa ana sa ido a kan duk abin da ka yi a shafin yanar gizo irin Twitter, ko kuma idan ka na da budadden shafin Facebook, ko kuma ka na yin magana a kan siyasa a zaurukan Facebook, za a dauki bayananka kuma ayi amfani da su ta hanyoyin da mu ka ambata a baya.

Abin la’akari

↘ Sa ido a kafafen sadarwa zai iya kauda wasu daga cikin matsalolin da ake fuskanta a hanyoyin da aka saba bi na samun ra’ayoyi (mutane su kan canza dabi’arsu muddin su ka san cewa ana lura da abin da su ke yi).

↘ Sauraron bayanai ta kafafen sadarwa na zamani ya na bada damar bibiya da auna ra’ayoyi da tunanin dinbin mutane fiye da ta hanyoyin da aka saba na safiyo da binciken ra’ayi.

↘ Sauraron bayanai ta kafafen zamani ya na karkata ne a kan halaye a maimakon dabi’a – ya na bayyana tsantsagoron ra’ayi.

↘ Ba a faye tambayar iznin mutane ko su bada damar ayi amfani da bayanansu wajen bincike ba, amma kamfanoni kan kare kansu da cewa su na karbar bayanai ne daga fili a bainar jama’a. Taken kamfanin Bakamo shi ne ‘fahimta ba tare da tambaya ba’, wanda ya nuna rashin neman iznin nan karin amfani ne.

↘ Duk da masu aikin sauraron bayanai ta kafafen zamani su na nuna tunanin mutane bai da wahalar fahimta. Ra’ayi ne ko kuma hali kurum. 18 Ra’ayi bai da saukin tattarawa. Sai dai a wajen lura da bayanai a kafafen zamani, ana maida hankali ne a kan halin da ake ciki wajen hasashen abin da mutane su ke so ko kuma za su so a nan gaba – wanda ba tilas ya zama hanyar da ta fi dacewa ba.

↘ Bayan haka, wannan hanya ta na auna ko kai ga mutane ko gungun mutane da-dama fiye da yadda aka saba a da, amma wannan dabara ta kadaita ne ga wadanda su ke tattauna harkar siyasa a shafin sada zumunta, don haka ya ke bada tsukakkiyar mahanga.


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