Isa ga mutum ta inda yake: Amfanin wuraren da kake zuwa don manufar siyasa

Isa ga mutum ta inda yake: Amfanin wuraren da kake zuwa don manufar siyasa

Me ake nufi da Isa ga mutum ta inda yake?

Isa ga mutum ta inda yake wani abu ne da ake yi ta hanyar amfani da bayanan inda mutum yake (garin da kake zama, har takamammen inda kake ta GPS) domin isar wasu tallace-tallace ko sakonni gare ka. Bayanan inda kake na iya bayyana inda kake zama, inda kake aiki, da abubuwan da kakeyi a karshen mako. Suna iya sanin lokutan da kake fita motsa jiki, fitarka zuwa kasuwa da zuwanka gidan kallon Sinima. Saboda bayanan inda kake na da muhimmanci wajen bayyana abubuwan da kake so da kake bukata, dukiya ne mai muhimmanci ga masu yakin neman zabe. Masu Kamfen sun dade suna amfani da ‘isa ga mutum ta inda yake’ wajen sanin irin sakonnin da za’a turawa unguwanni da suke da karfi da wadanda basu da shi. A yau, ta hanyar amfani da bayanan dabi’a da ake tatsowa daga bayanan inda kake, suna iya isa tura tallan siyasa ga` masu zabe kai tsaye cikin sauki. Jam’iyyun siyasa na iya samun bayanan inda kake ta hanyoyi masu yawa, wanda ya hada da bayanan da zaka bayar da kanka, wanda ke bainar gari a kundin masu zabe, kamfanoni masu zaman kansu, dillalan bayanai, kamfanonin sadarwa, API da aka hada da manhajojin gane wurare, bayanai da sauran su. 1

Yayinda adadin na’urorin haska bayanai (na’urar da ke fara aiki da zaran wani abu ya kusanceta), ke yawaita a duniya, bayanan inda mutum yake za su kara saukin samu. 2 Ta hanyar amfani da wannan bayani, masu yakin neman zabe zasu cigaba da isar da sakonninsu ga unguwanni na musamman, daidaikun gidaje, da tarukan siyasa.

Geotargeting wato Isa ga mutum ta inda yake na da hanyoyi da yawa, amma guda ukun da aka tabbatar sune:

Katange wurin da ake nufa: Shine samar da wani Katanga da ido bai gani domin zagaye wani wurin da ake nufa da isar ga sako ga daidaikun mutanen ke cikin inda aka katange kadai. Ana isa sanya wannan Katanga a daidaikun gidajen ko unguwanni ko garuruwa masu nisa.

Isar da sako ta adireshin IP: Girban bayanan ta adireshin IP da tura sakonni ga mutane ta bayana adireshin Ip dinsu.

Isa ga mutum ta wayar salula da dukiyarsa: Isar da sakonnin siyasa ta hanyar akwatin sako ko wayoyin hannu.

Wasu hanyoyin isa ga mutum ta da inda yake na faruwa ne a kowani yakin neman zabe da kayan aiki a fadin duniya; kusan dukkan masu yakin neman zabe na amfani da shahrarrun kafafen fasaha domin isa ga mutane, ko da cikin gari ne, unguwa ne, makwabta ne ko daidaikun gidaje. Na ba dadewa ba sabbin hanyoyin isa ga mutane ta inda suke zai yawaita saboda kamfanoni na fadada bincikensu da kuma rage kudin da suke kashewa.

Ta yaya ake amfani da bayananka?

Za kayi tunanin cewa bayanan sanin inda mutum yake wani kundin digo-digo (.) ne kowani digo na nufin mutum kuma suna yawo akan taswira yayinda mutum ke tafiya tsakanin gida, zuwa aiki, zuwa taro, zuwa tashar mota, sannan ya dawo gida kuma.

Amma a gaskiyar lamari, ita bayanin kanta ba tada wani ma’ana. Ta na iya amfani ne lokacin da aka yi kiyasi ciki, musamman idan aka samu labarai ta wasu hanyoyi.

Misali, Bayanin da aka samu kan wani yana yawan zuwa wurin motsa jiki bai da amfani ga yakin neman zabe sai anyi hasashe ko an tabbatar cewa mutum ne mai son kasancewa cikin koshin lafiya.

Yayinda lambar akwatin gidan wayarka na iya bada hasashen siyasar ka, idan aka hada da bayanin inda kake, kamar kasuwar da kake ziyara sosai, zai iya nuna cewa kana da dabi’a game da lamuran muhalli. Za ka iya dauka cewa wasu bayananka (Na inda kake zama ne ko na wayar salulanka) zasu zama dukiya ga masu yakin neman zabe domin isar ga sakonni gareka.

Kulli yaumin, kamfanoni da babu ruwansu da siyasa (Kamar tashar hasashen yanayi, mallakin IBM da Snapchat) sun fara sayarwa yan siyasa bayanan mutanensu da suka tattara.

A 2012, Tashar Hasashen yanayi ta sanar da cewa ta shiga hadaka da Jumptamp, wani kamfani wayoyin sadarwa, domin tura sakonnin zabe. An baiwa masu yakin neman zaben bayanan inda mutane suke da ainihi ake amfani da su wajen fadawa masu amfani da manhajar tashar hasashen yanayi, shafin yanar gizon tashar ya bayyana kuma tuni ya soke jawabin. 3

Hakazalika masu yakin neman zabe sun yi amfani da bayanan inda kake na manhajar sada zumuntar Snapchat. A zaben 2017 a Birtaniya, jam’iyyar Labour ta yi amfani da manhajar sada zumuntar Snapchat wajen jawo hankali matasa zuwa zabe ta hanyar wani alatu da zai lalubo rumfar zabensu.

snap-success

Ballin hoton Snapchat dake nuna yakin neman zaben Rob Portman a 2016 inda ya nuna yadda akayi amfani da shi wajen janyo ra’ayin mutane wajen gane Sanata Portman a birnin Ohio. Wannan abu da Snapchat tayi ya karawa mutane ilimin dan takaran da kashi 10%.
Asali: Snapchat.

An duba wannan sakon sau milyan 7.3 kuma mutane 780,000 sun yi amfani da alatun wajen gano inda akwatin zabensu yake. 4

A Amurka, Kamfanin Snapchat ya aika sakonni kira ga mutane su yi rijistan zabe gabanin zaben yan majalisan 2018. 5

A yanzu kuma, masu yakin neman zabe sun fara amfani da adireshin IP wajen isa ga mutane. Kamfanin DSPolitical, da ke da zama a birnin Washington DC, ya yi amfani da adireshin IP da Kukis wajen isar ga bidiyoyi milyan takwas ga masu zabe 450,000 a zaben kasar Canada na 2015.

Kamfanin ya yi ikirarin cewa ayyukansa sun yi nasara sosai kuma tuni an yi amfani da su a zabukan jihohi biyu a kasar Canada. 6 Jam’iyyar Liberal Democrats a Birtaniya ta yi amfani da kamfanin Digital Element, wacce aka yiwa lakanin ‘shugabar amfani da adireshin IP wajen isar da sako a duniya’ a zaben kasar na 2015. 7

Wasu misalai

A kasar Amurka: A Afrilun 2016, lokacin da Sanata LisaMurkowski ke neman zarcewa a kujerar wakiltar mazabar Alaska, masu yakin neman zabenta sun kirkira wani tallar isa ga mutum kan wani gini daya kacal.

Tallar na bayyana gudunmuwan da Sanata LisaMurkowski ta bada wajen gina titi mai tsawo mil 11 ta cikin daji a jiharta, aikin da ma’aikatar harkokin cikin gida (ma’aikatar gwamnati dake lura ga gidajen zoo) ta yi adawa da a lokacin.

Ta samu amfani da fasahar katange hedkwatar ma’aikatar harkokin cikin gidan, wanda ke makwabtaka da fadar shugaban kasar Amurka, White House.

Ma’aikatan da ke aiki a ginin, yayinda suke ayyukansu a yanar gizo sun ga sakon Sanata Murkoswski sau 7,000.

Sakamakon haka, a Junairu 2018, shugaban ma’aikatar harkokin cikin gida ya baya damar gina titin. 8

A Guyana: Wani kamfani mai zama a Amurka, El Toro, ya taya dan takaran jam’iyyar adawa, David Granger, samun nasara a zaben 2015 ta hanyar amfani da isar da sako ta adireshin IP.

Kamfanin El Toro ya yi amfani da adireshin IP na mutane zuwa adireshin gidajensu, inda hakan ya baiwa masu yakin neman zaben Granger daman aika sakonni daidaici ga kowani gida da wayar salula, ko da sun bar gida da wuraren aikinsu.

Wannan nasara ya baiwa mutane mamaki saboda gwamnatin kasar Guyana ke juya gidajen talabijin da rediyo kuma ta hana dan takarar adawan amfani da su. 9

Kamfanin El Toro ya yi ikirarin cewa ya yi amfani da fasahar isar da sako ga mutane ta adireshin IP a zabuka 2000 a fadin duniya kuma an samu nasarar isa ga mutane ne ta inda suke a kowani lokaci na tsawon watanni shida. 10

el-toro-1

Ballin hoto daga shafin El Toro na nuna cewa ikirarin kamfanin cewa za ta yi kaiwa masu zabe hari ta hanyar amfani da bayanan wayoyinsu na tsawon watanni shida, ta hanyar hada shi da adireshin gidajensu.
Asali: El Toro Political Digital Advertising An duba 27 Febrairu 2019.

A kasar Faransa: Kamfanin Liegey Muller Pons (LMP) ta aiwatar daa ayyukan zabe ga sama da masu yakin neman zabe 1000 a kasashen Turai shida. 11. Saboda dokar kasar Faransa ta haramtar kaiwa daidaikun mutane hari, LMP na taimakawa masu yakin neman zabe wajen sanin shin wani unguwa ko rumfar zabe ya kamata a baiwa karfi, bisa wadanda ake tunanin suna ra’ayin dan takaran. 12

LMP ya hada kai da kamfanin Cloud Factory dake kasar Nepal, wajen tattara bayanan hotunan unguwanni daga tauraron dan Adam domin amfani da su wajen taimakawa yakin neman zaben Emmanuel Macron na 2017 wajen sanin rumfunan zaben da ya kamata a baiwa karfi.

A wani jawabi mai taken ‘An samu nasara a zaben shugaban kasar Faransa ta hanyar amfani da bayanan fasaharAI, kamfanin Cloud Factory ya bayyana yadda LMP ya taimaka wajen hasashen sakamakon zaben, yadda mutane ke kada kuri’a, unguwannin masu kada kuri’a da sauran bayanan da zasu taimakawa dan takara wajen fahimtar mazabunsu sosai.

Jawabin ya kara da cewa, ‘Fasahar taswirar unguwanni na taimakawa yan takara gane wuraren da ya kamata su bada karfi wajen tattaunawa da masu zabe. Ya kan taimakawa masu bi gida-gida suna kamfen aiki tare da abokan aikinsu dake ofis wajen sanin takamammen wuraren da ake son su da inda ba’a san su. 13

cloudFactoryBlogPostText

Ballin hoton shafin Cloud Factory wanda ke nuna fasahar da ka iya taimakawa masu yakin neman zabe.
Asali: Cloud Factory 23 Mayu 2017.

Abubuwan la’akari

↘ Saboda tarihin wuraren da muka ziyarta na iya kıyasın yadda mike gudanar da rayuwanmu, da irin abubuwan da muke so, za su iyi zama hanyoyin yin kutse cikin rayuwar sirrinmu

↘ Akwai bayanan wuraren da mutane suke a kasuwa muddin kana da kudin saya, za ka samu

↘ Tun da ana amfani da bayanan inda mutum yaka wajen kiyasi da hasashe, za a iya rashin adalci da shi
Yayinda ya rashin daidaito za’a iya shafan sihhanci sakamakon, babban abin damuwa shine za a iya amfini da shi wajen magudin zaben, ta hanyar hana wasu mutane zabe (saboda tuni an gane inda suka dosa)

↘ Yawancin mutane basu da masaniyan wannan abun, ko da suna kwasan bayanai daga manhajojin kasuwancinsu

↘ Isa ga mutum ta inda yake na bukatar zaben wuraren da za’a je yakin neman zabe da wuraren da ba za’a je ba, hakan na kara yiwuwar ware wasu mutane daga harkokin zaben gaba daya Wasu ayyukan da ake gudanarwa na amfanar wasu unguwanni ko rumfunan zabe da aka siffanta a matsayin ‘wurare masu muhimmanci’, hakan ya sa wasu na tunanin shin wuraren da basu da muhimmanci na samun irin wadannan ayyuka. 14 Wasu sun yi tsokacin cewa ‘kungiyoyi na da ikon tabbatar da cewa wasu sakonni basu isa ga wasu unguwani, kuma hakan na nuna yadda za a iya amfani da ‘isa ga mutane’ wajen mayar wasu masu zabe saniyar ware ko dannesu. 15

↘ An dade ana amfani Dabarun bibiyan sufurin mutane ta hanyoyi masu ban takaici. Yan fafutukan kira ga haramta zubar da ciki sun yi amfani da fasahar ‘isar da sako ta idan mutum yake’ wajen aika sakonni na musamman ga matan da tauraron dan Adam ya dauka suna ziyartar asibitocin zub da ciki a biranen Amurka daban-daban (Irinsu birnin New York, St. Louis and Pittsburgh). 16

↘ An samu rahotannin lauyoyi na tura sakonni zuwa marasa lafiya cikin dakunan jinyan gaggawa. 17 Ana iya amfani da dabarun isar da sako zuwa ga mutane irin haka wajen abubuwa mara kyau da dama kuma babu mai kula.


  1. Allison Schiff, ‘2017 Marketer’s Guide To Location Data’(Takardar shiriya gad an kasuwan bayanin sufurin mutum), AdExchanger, 8 May 2017, https://adexchanger.com/mobile/2017-marketers-guide
  2. ‘‘Location Tracking and the Trouble With “Opting In”’, Ad Age, accessed 6 June 2018, (Bibiyan sufuri da matsalar shiga, an duba 6 ga Yuni, 2018) https://adage.com/article/digital/mobile-location-troubleopting/306121/.
  3. Andrew Blankstein, ‘The Weather Company app sued over claims it sold location data’, 4 January 2019, (An shigar da kamfanin has ashen yanayi kan sayar da bayanan sufurin mutane) https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/tech-news/weather-channel-sued-over-claims-it-sold-location-data-its-n954706. Original source, www.theweathercompany.com/newsroom/2014/08/19/weather-channel-partners-jumptap-national-election-advertising
  4. Andrew Gwynne, ‘Theresa May Called a Snap Election, but We in Labour Had Snapchat. No Contest | Andrew Gwynne’, The Guardian, 15 June 2017, sec. Opinion,(Theresa May ta shirya zaben gaggawa, amma mu a jam’iyyar Labour Snapchat mukayi, bau takara) https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jun/15/theresa-may-snap-election-labour-snapchat-campaigning.
  5. ‘2018 Midterms: Facebook, Snapchat, Lyft Turn out with Vote Initiatives’, usatoday, accessed 27 February 2019, http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/elections/2018/10/20/tech-companies-social-media-voterinitiatives/1592854002/.
  6. ‘DSPolitical International’, DSPolitical, accessed 27 February 2019, https://www.dspolitical.com/worldwide/.
  7. ‘Liberal Democrats Are the First Party to Use IP Geolocation’, Digital Element (blog), 28 April 2015, (Yan jam’iyyar Liberal Democrat ce jam’iyyar da ta fara amfani da bayanin inda mutum yake) https://www.digitalelement.com/liberal-democratsare-the-frst-party-to-use-ip-geolocation-to-engage-voters-ahead-of-generalelection-2/.
  8. Kashmir Hill, ‘How a Senator Used Facebook Ads to Influence Employees in a Single D.C. Building’, Splinter, accessed 27 February 2019,(Yadda Sanata yayi amfani da Facebook Ads wajen tasiri kan ma’aikatan wani gini guda a DC, an duba 27 ga Febrairu 2019) https://splinternews.com/how-a-senator-used-facebook-ads-to-influenceemployees-1793856310.
  9. ‘El Toro LLC Contracted in David Granger’s Campaign for Guyana Presidency’, Louisville Business First, accessed 27 February 2019,(An baiwa EL Toro LLC kwangilan yakin neman zaben shugabancin kasar Guyana da David Granger yayi, an duba 27 ga Febrairu, 2019) https://www.bizjournals.com/louisville/blog/2015/06/louisville-startup-helps-client-win-guyana.html.79
  10. ‘Political Digital Advertising: Digitally Advertise with Political IP Targeting’, El Toro (blog), accessed 27 February 2019, (Tallan zaben zamami: Kayi tallan siyasarka ta hanyar amfani da adireshin IP, an duba 27 ga Febrairu, 2019) https://www.eltoro.com/political-digital-advertising/
  11. ‘Liegey Muller Pons’, Liegey Muller Pons, accessed 27 February 2019, https://www.liegeymullerpons.fr/en
  12. ‘The 2017 Presidential Election: The Arrival of Targeted Political Speech in French Politics’, accessed 27 February 2019, (Zaben shugaban kasa 2017: Zuwan jawaban siyasa a siyasar Faransa, an duba 27 ga Febrairu, 2019) https://ourdataourselves.tacticaltech.org/media/ttc-influence-industry-france.pdf
  13. Courtney Wilson, ‘French Presidential Campaign Rolls to Victory Using Geospatial AI’, accessed 27 February 2019, (Jirgin yakin neman zaben Faransa ya samu nasara ta hanyar amfani da mutum-mutumi) https://blog.cloudfactory.com/french-presidential-campaign-geospatial-ai
  14. Rick Redding, ‘Louisville’s El Toro Helps Opposition Win in Guyana Election’,(El Toro ya taimakawa jam’iyyar hamayya wajen nasara a zaben Guyana) Louisville KY, 16 June 2015, http://louisvilleky.com/louisvilles-el-toro-helpsopposition-win-in-guyana-election/
  15. ‘Partner Spotlight: Q&A with Factual’, The Trade Desk, 16 June 2016, https://www.thetradedesk.com/blog/partner-spotlight-q-a-with-factual.
  16. ‘Anti-Choice Groups Use Smartphone Surveillance to Target “AbortionMinded Women” During Clinic Visits’, Rewire.News, accessed 27 February 2019, (Rashin amincewar kungiyoyi wajen amfani da wayoyin salula wajen bibiyan matan da ka iya zub da ciki yayinda suka ziyarci asibiti, an duba 27 ga Febrairu 2019) https://rewire.news/article/2016/05/25/anti-choice-groupsdeploy-smartphone-surveillance-target-abortion-minded-women-clinicvisits/
  17. ‘Digital Ambulance Chasers? Law Firms Send Ads To Patients’ Phones Inside ERs’, NPR.org, 25 May 2018, (Ofisoshin lauyoyi na turawa marasa lafiya talle) https://www.npr.org/sections/healthshots/2018/05/25/613127311/digital-ambulance-chasers-law-frmssend-ads-to-patients-phones-inside-ers