Amfani da ayyukan mutum wajen kiyasin dabi’arsa: Janyo hankalin mutum ta dabi’arsa

Me ake nufi da Amfani da ayyukan mutum wajen kiyasin dabi’arsa

A watan Maris 2017, Shugaban kamfanin Cambridge Analytica, CEO Alexander Nix, ya bayyana cewa sun yi kiyasin dabi’ar dukkan wadanda suka kai shekaru 18 a kasar Amurka.

Ta hanyar amfani da bayanin mai zaben da ya girba daga kafar sada zumunta Facebook, kamfanin ya taimaka wajen nasarar zaben Donald Trump. 1

Duk da cewa tuni kamfanin Cambridge Analytica ya waste saboda gaza biyan basussukansa, tattara bayanan dabi’ar mutaneda amfani da su ya zama abu mai muhimmanci ga kamfanoni masu zaman kansu da masu yakin neman zabe, musamman yanzu da masu bukatar kiyasin dabi’un mutane suka yawaita. 2,3,4,5,6,7

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Wannan hoton daga wani takarda a 2014, mai taken ‘Bibiyan halayyan mutum’, na nuna yadda tunanin mutum yake.
Asali: R. Lambiotte and M.Kosinski, ‘Tracking the Digital Footprints of Personality’ Proceedings of the IEEE 102, no.12 (Disamba 2014): 1934–39

Amfani da ayyukan mutum wajen kiyasin dabi’arsa wani abu ne da ake yi ta hanyar lura da abubuwan da kake yi yau da kullum domin kiyasta yadda dabi’unka zasu kasance.

Kamfanonin tallace-tallace, masana’antu da yan siyasa sun dade suna amfani da ilimin dabi’ar mutum wajen fahimta da tasiri kansa, da hallayansa. 8

Amfani da ayyukan mutum wajen kiyasin dabi’arsa ya wuce haka saboda ana kwasan bayanan mutum wanda masana dabarun siyasa ke amfani wajen shirya sakonninsu domin cimma nasarar tasiri kan mutane da masu zabe.

Ana iya shirya kundin ayyukan mutum domin kiyasin dabi’arsa ta hanyoyi da yawa. Mafi sauki ciki shine gudanar da safiyo inda daidaikun mutane zasu amsa tambayoyin da zai bayyana wani sashen abinda tunaninsu ya kunsa.

Misali, wadanda suka bada amsan cewa koda yaushe suna bin tsarin da suka shirya a rayuwarsu, ana musu kiyasin suna da dabi’ar farga, kula da yin abu a hankali, kuma wannan dabi’ar na nuna halin biyayya ga hukuma da bin daidai.

Yayinda safiyo irin wannan kan bada daman shirya kundin ayyukan mutum domin kiyasi, binciken bayanan zamani ya maishe da amfani da ayyukan mutum wajen kiyasin dabi’arsa wuce kawai yiwa mutane tambaya suna amsawa.

A yanzu, an daina bukatar amsar mutane: masu bincike sun yi ikirarin cewa za’a iya kiyasin dabi’ar mutum ta binciken yadda yake amfani da Facebook.

Hakan na nufin cewa babu bukatar tambayar mutum halinsa yayinda yake danna ‘like’ kan shafin Leonardo da Vinci saboda an riga an gano mutum ne mai son yin abubuwa a bayyane. Wannan cigaba ya taimaka wajen rage wahalan yin safiyo kuma zai kara ribar masu bincike. 9

Daya daga cikin mafi shaharan mazhabobin amfanin da ayyukan mutum wajen kiyasin dabi’arsa shine OCEAN, wanda aka fi sani da ‘Manya Biyar’, ana kiran mazhabar manya biyar ne saboda dabi’u biyar: Yin abu a bude, kula sosai, son harka da mutane, amincewa da abubuwa, yawan damuwa ko kosawa.

Binciken ilimin tunani ya nuna cewa wadannan dabi’u biyar sun game abubuwa da dama da mutum zai mallaka fiye da wani hadi irinsu. 10

Ga masu yakin neman zabe ko wata manufa ta daban, bayanan kan dabi’un OCEAN na masu zabe na matukar muhimmanci, saboda a cewa Cambridge Analytica: ‘Idan ka san dabi’ar mutanen da kake kokarin kai wa hari, za ka iya shirya sakonka ta yadda za ta shigesu.

Idan mutum na da kula sosai kuma yana da halin kosawa, z aka bukaci sakon da zai iya tsoratar dashi tare da hujjoji. 11

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Wannan zanen na nuna bututun tattara bayanai ta halayyan mutane bisa bayanan Facebook, kaman yadda aka wallafa a takardun makaranta. A aikace, ana samun bayanai kan hallaya ta abubuwan da mutum ke so, wasannan yanar gizo, da bayanan Facebook.
Asali: Varoon Bashyakarla, ‘Psychometric Profling: Persuasion by Personality in Elections’, 18 Mayu 2018 & McKenzie Funk, ‘Opinion | Cambridge Analytica and the Secret Agenda of a Facebook Quiz’, The New York Times, 17 Maris 2018.

Ta yaya ake amfani da bayananka?

Sabanin amfani da bayanai irinsu jinsi da shekarun mutum, amfani da bayanan ayyukan mutum wajen kiyasi ba abinda ake gani ba kai tsaye, ana bukatar da amfani da wasu lissafe-lissafe.

A 2013, Michal Kosinski – daya daga cikin wadanda suka fara harka a ilimin amfani da bayanan ayyukan mutum wajen kiyasin dabi’unsa – shine mutumin farko da ya nuna cewa akwai hanyoyin kiyasin dabi’ar mutum ta abubuwan da yake so a Facebook. 12

A 2015, Kosinski da tawagarsa sun wallafa wani rahoton cewa na’ura ta fi kwarewa wajen gane dabi’ar mutum daga bayanai (fiye da abokansa, aboka aikinsa da abokan harkallanka da yan’uwa). 13

Ba da dadewa ba a 2017, sun nuna cewa tallan da akayi amfani kan bayanan ayyukan mutanen ya fi aiki fiye da tallan da ba’a yi ba. 14

Sakamakon masu tonan asiri da sa idon gwamnati, wasu hanyoyin da Cambridge Analytica ya samo bayanai da ilmominsa sun bayyana, duk da hakan ba a gama sanin komai game da wannan duniya ta amfani da ayyukan mutum wajen kiyasin dabi’unsa ba.

A Birtaniya: Jam’iyyar Conservative da abokiyar hamayyarta Labour Party sun baiwa kamfanin Experien aiki. Experien wani kamfanin ne dake tura irin bayanan da ake bukata wajen amfani da ayyukan mutane wajen kiyasin dabi’unsu zuwa abokan harkalla a kasashen waje. 15

Dillalan bayanan sun yi ikirarin cewa suna rike da bayanan mutane sama da bilyan daya a Turai da Amurka kuma sun samu kudi fiye da $4.6 bilyan a 2018. 16

Babu hujjan dake nuna cewa jam’iyyun siyasan biyu sun yi amfani da bayanan Experian, amma kamfanin ya sanya hannun jari wajen gina kundin bayanai kuma yana sayarwa abokan harkalla.

Daya daga cikin ayyukan Experian shine Audience IQ, shahrarran inda yan kasuwa ke iya tasiri kan yadda mutane zasu yi zabe ta hanyar nade tunaninsu, kabilarsu da hallayarsu tare. 17

A Amurka: Kamfanin Cambridge Analytica ya kai hari ga masu zaben da akayi kiyasin za’a iya janyo hankulansu a zaben shugaban kasan 2016 a Amurka don zaben Ted Cruz, kuma daga baya Donald Trump.

Tsohon shugaban Cambridge Analytica, Nix, ya alakanta abinda kamfanin yayi na haran dabi’ar mutane tare da tasiri kan yadda sukayi zabe, yace: ‘Dabi’a ke tafiyar da halayya, kuma halayya tabbas zai yi tasiri kan yadda za kayi zabe’.

Ta hanyar amfani da kamfanin da ke mallakansa, Strategic Communication Laboratories, Cambridge Analytica ya sa hannu cikin zabubbuka a akalla kasashe 20. 18 Ta hanyar amfani da bayanan da ya girba daga Facebook, Cambridge Analytica ya yi ikirarin cewa ya samu nasarar aika sakonni zuwa masu zabe kan lamura da ake yawan muhawara kansu kamar mallakar bindiga. 19

Ta yaya zan sani idan ana amfani da shi a kaina?

Harkokin amfani da bayanan ayyukan mutum wajen kiyasin dabi’arsa kadan kawai ake iya bincika. Bayan abin kunyan da ya faru kan tona asirin Cambridge Analytica, Facebook ta saki wani abu da zai taimakawa mutane wajen gani ko anyi kutse cikin bayanansu. 20

Bayan haka, duk da cewa ya kan dau lokaci, mutum na iya mika bukatar bayanansa, kamar irin wanda ma’aikatar kare bayanan mutane a kasashen Turai GDPR ta bada umurni domin binciken wanda aka yiwa kiyasi ta bayanansa. Amma dai, babu yadda za’a yi mutum ya san an yi amfani da bayanasan wajen gina kundin bayanai ta hanyar amfani da ayyukanka wajen kiyasi.

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Wannan ballin hoton daga Experian’s Audience IQ na nuna cewa ta hanyar duba abubuwan da ake amfani da shin wajen gane halayyen mutanen da ke da niyyar kara adadin kuri’u._
Asali: [‘Wayback Machine’](https://web.archive.org/web/20180410114126/https://www.experian.com/assets/marketing-services/product-sheets/das-political-data-sheet.pdf), 10 Afrilu 2018._

Abubuwan la’akari

↘ Dubi ga yadda ake samun nasara wajen amfani da bayanan ayyuka wajen kiyasin dabi’a, za’a iya amfani da dabarar wajen janyo hankali wadanda basu yi rijistan zabe ba domin suyi musharaka ko da ko basu da wanda suke goyon baya.

↘ Kamfanoni da masu yakin neman zabe zasu iya amfani da bayanan dabi’ar mutum wajen ayyukan muna-muna. Misali, masu kamfen na iya amfani da bayanai wajen danne wasu da kuma wasu hanyoyin tasirin boye

↘ Masu zabe za su iya fidda tsammani kan harkokin siyasa idan suka fara yiwa dabarun amfani da bayyanan ayyuka wajen kiyasin dabi’a kallo kutse da rashin gaskiya

↘ Za a iya amfani da bayanin mutum ba tare da saninsa ko izininsa ba kuma ba zai iya kare kansa daga irin tasirin da hakan zai iya yi ga ra’ayin siyasarsa ba.


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