Kiran wayan da tura sakonnin mutum-mutumi: Yakin neman zaben ta na’urar yi da kanka

Shin menene Kiran wayan da tura sakonnin mutum-mutumi? 1

Hanyar gudanar da harkokin banki ta wayar salula da aka dade ana jira ya iso: cigaba a ilimin fasaha ya bada daman samar da dabarar da za’a iya amfani da shi fiye da yadda ake tsammani.

Yadda yawaitar samun bayanan mai zabe ya taimakawa dabarar Kiran wayan da tura sakonnin3 mutum-mutumi da hanyoyin isa ga mutane da binciken masu zabe.

Ana iya amfani da wadannan alatun wajen tattara Karin bayanan daga masu zabe. Irinsu yiwuwar hallatarsu taron yakin neman zabe ko ra’ayinsu kan wani lamari ko dan takara.

Kiran wayan mutum-mutumi: Aikin Kiran wayan da tura sakonnin mutum-mutumi shine kiran wasu jerin lambobin wayan domin isar da wani sako da aka shirya ko kuma wani zubin mutum-mutumi ya kira mutum kai tsaye tamkar dan Adam

Bugu da kari, wadannan abubuwan na taimakawa wajen rarraba masu zabe ta hanyar zabuka da safiyo. 4 Tare da yin harkokin banki (tura kudi, kasuwanci dss) ta waya, Kiran wayan mutum-mutumi manyan kayan aikin yakin neman zaben wani dan takara ko jam’iyya ne.

Tura sakonni: Kamar dai Kiran wayan mutum-mutumi, ana amfani da tura sakonnin mutum-mutumi wajen watsa sakonnin siyasa ko fadakar da masu zabe zuwa wayoyinsu. Masu yakin neman zabe na amfani da kafafen tura sakonni irinsu WhatsApp5 wajen tattaunawa tsakaninsu da masu zabe, hadi da shirya zabukan wasa ko safiyo. 6

Ta yaya ake amfani da bayananka?

Ana kira waya da tura sakonni ne domin isa gareka kai tsaye ta hanyar amfani da daya daga cikin bayananka mafi muhimmanci: lambar wayarka.

Domin samun Karin mabiya da magoya baya, masu neman neman zabe na bada kundin masu zabensu ko bayanan da suka saya ga kamfanonin sadarwa, domin su taya su kiran wayoyin mutane da tura musu sakonni.

Da yawa daga cikin kamfanonin nan na sayar da kundin lambobin wayan masu zabe. Masu yakin neman zabe a kasashe da yawa sun dogara kan wadannan ayyukan (tare da lambobin wayan da suka samu wajen mambobin jam’iyya) a yawon yakin neman zabensu, musamman ta hanyar amfani da manyan kafafen tura sakonni irinsu WhatsApp.

Ayyukan amfani da bayanai sun zama kashi bayan yakin neman zaben zamani. Saboda haka, an fara sanyasu cikin harkokin kamfanonin amfani da mutum-mutumi.

Misali, kamfanin RoboCent7 ya yi tallar sahihin bayanan masu zabe a farashin $0.038, wanda ya hada da bayanai irin sunaye, adireshin, jam’iyyar siyasar mutum (an samu daga takardar rijistan jam’iyya ko ta wasu hanyoyi), yawan shekaru, jinsi, inda mutum ke zabe, adireshi akwatin email, lambar yawan gida da ma hammu, bayanan yanki irinsu kabila, harshe, da karatu. 9

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Ballin hoton bukatar mai zabe daga shafin Robocent dake nuna wurare, da lambobi.
Asali:‘Request Data’, RoboCent, Inc. (blog), An duba 20 Febrairu 2019.

Ayyukan tura sakonni na da kamanceceniya ta yadda suke samu da amfani da lambobin waya da daga jerin sunayen masu zabe ko kundin masu zabe.

Kamfanonin irinsu uCampaign11, RumbleUp12 da Relay13 na iya amfani da lambobin wayar kwastamominsu wajen tura sakonnin siyasa har da tuntunbar wadanda suka lura na da hannu da shuni domin taimakawa da’awarsu. 14

Wadannan kamfanonin na iya samun lambobin waya kuma su baiwa jam’iyyun siyasa. Kamfanin Relay misali, na amincewa a kwaso bayanai daga kundin zaben wasu da runbun bayanansu, irinsu NGP VAN15 da Political Data Inc. 16

Ayyukan kiran waya da tura sakonnin mutum-mutumi sun samar da hanyoyi biyu wajen taimakawa yan takara wajen tattaro karin bayanai daga wajen mutane da suke kira ko turawa sako.

Dukka hanyoyin na kokarin kwato bayanan mutum da shiryasu domin amfanin yakin neman zabe.

Amfani wadannan dabarun shine samun tattaunawa da mai zabe da kuma kara fahimtar ra’ayoyinsu ta hanyar wasu tambayoyin da aka shirya, wanda mutum zai yi musu ko mutum-mutumi, ko kuma duka biyun.

Kiran wayan mutum-mutumi na iya shirya zaben wasa da safiyo a hanyar tambayar wadanda aka kira suyi amfani da wayoyinsu ko muryarsu wajen amsa tambayoyi.

Sai a tura bayanan cikin sauri domin inganta bayanan da aka tara domin yakin neman zabe da kafafen tara bayanan mai zabe irinsu NGP VAN. 17

A fannin tura sakonni kuwa, manhajar tura sakonnin kamfanin Upland Software19, misalin, ta nada wani abu mai suna ‘Fadawa abokinka’, wanda ake amfani da shi wajen akalla yakin neman zabe daya, inda dalibai zasu turo lambobin wayar abokansu domin gayyatarsu cikin runbun lambonin masu samun sako. 20

Manhajar tura sakonnin Callhub.io21 ta yi tallan wani babban fasahar tattara bayanai ta sakonni da ‘zai iya tara bayanan mai zabe da kansa ta hanyar tattaunawan sakonnin waya da kuma gina kundi ga kowani mai goyon baya’22 kuma ya kara amfani da wasu hanyoyi dwajen tattara bayanai da kansa domin amfanin yakinneman zabe.

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Bayani kan hanyoyi da ake samun bayanan mai zabe ta hanyar tura sakonni kamar yadda CallHub tayi talla.
Asali: ‘SMS Data Collection’, CallHub (blog), An duba 13 Febrairu 2019.

Wasu misalai

A kasar Canada: Yayinda amfani da bayanan mutane wajen kiran waya da turo sakonnin siyasa ta mutum-mutumi ya zama ruwan dare, kafafen yada labarai sun daina tada jijiyar wuya kai sai lokacin da akayi amfani da bayanin mai kada kuri’a ta hanyar da bai dace ba ko kuma sakon da aka isar ya tayar da kura.

An yi amfani da bayanin mai zabe ta hanyar da bai dace ba a zaben kasar Canada a 2011, inda mazauna wani yankunan24 suka fuskanci kalubalen labaran bogi25 ranar zabe kan rumfunan zaben dake yankunan ta hanyar amfani da kira da sakonnin mutum-mutumi.

Daga karshe kotu ta yanke hukuncin cewa ana kyautata zaton tushen kiraye-kirayen wayan nan ya zo ne daga runbun bayanan CIMS26 dake karkashin mallakan jam’iyyar [Conservative Party of Canada], kuma wani ko wasu ne sukayi hakan da gayya amma ba’a ganosu ba. 27

A 2014, an kama wani tsohon ma’aikacin jam’iyyar [Conservative Party of Canada], da laifin saba dokar zaben kasar ta hanyar amfani da kiran wayan mutum-mutumi wajen yada labaran karya.

Ma’aikacin ya yi amfani da kiran mutum-mutumi wajen kira dubban mutane a Guelph, Ontario, da waya daya. 28,29

A kasar Indiya: Cikin yunkurin tabbatar da cewa kowa ya samu damar sadarwa, jihar Chhattisgarh ta kaddamar da shirin sadar da al’ummarta ta hanyar samawa dalibai da mata wayoyin salulan zamani maras tsada.

Ana gab da zaben 2019, an samu rahoton cewa masu yakin neman zaben babban minister da jam’iyyar Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) na harin wadannan wayoyi ta hanyar yin kiraye-kirayen mutum-mutumi.

Rahoton ya bayyana cewa wani hari na kiran mutum-mutumin da aka shiryawa masu zabe, na fitowa ne daga cibiyar kiran waya da gwamnatin kasar tayi amfani a baya amma yanzu wani mutum daya na amfani da shi wajen harkar siyasa. 30

Bayan haka, an yi amfani da bayanan da aka tattara ta hanyar kiran mutum-mutumin wajen sanya yan fafutukan jam’iyyar ziyartan mutane domin su marawa jam’iyyar adawa Indian National Congress Party, baya.

A martani, jam’iyyar Congress Party ta shigar da kararraki hukumar shirya zaben kasar cewa jam’iyyar BJP na amfani da bayanan da gwamnati ta mallaka na masu zabe wajen amfanin yakin neman zabenta.

A kasar Malaysiya: Rahotannin yadda akayi amfani da bayanan masu zabe yayinda ake shirin zaben 2018 a Malayisya ya hada da yadda akayi amfani da kiran mutum-mutumi.

Rahoton da Tactical Tech ta samu ya nuna yadda wata ‘hukumar kididdikar kasar’ ta kira masu zabe sau dama a waya. Amma dai babu wata hukuma mai sunan haka a kasar Malaysiya. 31

Duk da haka, mai kiran ya san sunayen masu zaben da ya kira da yarensu kuma ya yi tambayoyi kan gwamnatin da ke ci da yadda take yiwa jam’iyyun adawa.

A wani lamarin kuma, wata ta bayyana cewa daya daga cikin manyan cibiyoyin kiran waya a kasar Malaysiya ya kira ta yana mai tambayar wanda take shirin zaba, rumfar zabenta, da dalilin da ya sa za tayi zabe.

Har yanzu ba’a san wacce jam’iyyar siyasa tayi wannan kiraye-kirayen ba, yadda ta samu lambobin wayar masu zabe da kuma yadda aka shirya sakamakon kiraye-kirayen. 32

A Birtaniya: Yayinda zaben raba gardamar fitar Birtaniya daga gamayyar kasashen Turai a 2016, abokin harkallar kungiyar masu rajin Birtaniya ta fita ‘Leave.EU’, Better for the Country Ltd, ya tura sakonnin waya zuwa ga sama da lambobin wayan masu zaben kasa 500,000.

Jaridar The Guardian ta ruwaito cewa an samu wadannan lambobin wayan ne daga masu zaben da suka zabi samun sakonni kan lamuran hutu, gyaran gida da inshora.

A 2016, ofishin kwamishanan labaran Birtaniya ya ci taran kungiyar Leave.EU £50,000 kan tura sakonni ba tare da neman izinin mutanen ba. 33

Ta yaya zan sani idan ana amfani da shi a kaina?

Gaskiya da matukar wuya ka sani idan ana harinka ta kira waya da tura sakonnin mutum-mutumi: kawai masu zabe zasu ga an cika musu waya da sakonnin siyasa daga yan takara ko kungiyoyi.

Sau da dama dokokin hukumomin kare hakki na lura da isa ga mutane ta kiran waya da tura sakonnin mutum-mutumi ta hanyar bukatar amincewar mutum kafin a fara tura masa wadannan sakonni.

Amma wadannan dokokin kan sha banban bisa irin ta’arifin da aka yiwa hanyoyin yakin neman zabe.

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Ballin hoton kiran mutum-mutumi kamar yadda NGP VAN tayi talla, wani fasahar da yan jam’iyyar Democrats ke amfani shi a Amurka.
Asali: NGP VAN, ‘Campaign Phone Tools’, An duba 28 Febrairu 2019.

Misali, tura sakonnin siyasa bai fusktanar lura hukuma kaman yan kasuwa. 34

Duk da wadannan dokoki, masu kamfanonin kiran waya da sakonnin mutum-mutumi sun samo hanyoyin kaucewa dokokin.

Misali, ba’a amince a tura sakonni masu yawa ga mutane ba tare neman izininsu ba, hukumar sadarwan kasar tace ‘wajibi ne dan Adam na wajen lokacin da ake tura kowani sako.’ 35

Salon tura sakonnin P2P (Peer-to-peer) na karya wadannan dokokin da hujjan cewa akwai wanda ke tattaunawa da mai zabe gaba da gaba.

Saboda haka ba’a daukeshi ‘tura sakon mutum-mutumi’ ba ko da ko an tura sakonnin da yawa zuwa ga dubunnan lambobin waya. 36

Hakazalika, RoboCent ya kaddamar na nasa salon na ‘fasahar sakon Voicemail mara kararrawa’ wanda ya bada daman isar da sako ba tare da wayar tayi kara ba kuma kamfnain yayi tallan cewa masu amfani 300 za su iya amfana. 37

Har yanzu hukumar sadarwar tarayya bata yanke hukunci kan hallaci wannan fasahar ba. 38

Abubuwan la’akari

↘ Kiran mutum-mutumi da tura sakonni na amfani da bayanan mutum tare da hulda da mai zabe ta hanyar tura masa sakonnin siyasa da gudanar da zabukan wasa da safiyo.

↘ Za a iya daukan Kiran mutum-mutumi da tura sakonni matsayin hanyar sadarwa tsakanin yan siyasa/jam’iyyun siyasa da masu zabe – abinda aka gane yiwuwan haka ba da dadewa ba

Wannan alaka kan iya wuce lokacin zabe wajen tattaunawa tsakanin juna, kamar lamarin yan siyasan kasar Malaysiya inda suke tura sakonni zagayowar ranar haihuwa ko bukukuwa ga magoya bayansu. 40

↘ Amma, Kiran mutum-mutumi da tura sakonni a yakin neman zabe kan iya tada rikicin ware wani sashen masu zabe

↘Akwai Karin hujjoji cewa sakonni na taimakawa wajen yada labarai bogi41 da karya lokutan yakin neman zabe, kaman lokacin da aka shirin zaben 2019 a Najeriya42, ko badakalar sakonni da kwamitin shirya zaben Quebec a 2018 inda akayi alkawarin biyan mutane kudi idan suka bada goyon baya. 43

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Ballin hoton daga shafin Twitter na zaben Quebec inda ake yiwa masu zabe gargadin sakonnin bogi da ake turawa masu zabe.
Source: Québec, Élections. “Important! Un faux message texte circule présente-ment. Sachez qu’en aucun cas, Élections Québec ne demanderaitune rétribution ou n’offrirait une rémunération liée à l’exercice du droit de vote aux élections générales. En cas de doute 1 888 353-2846. #polqc #QC2018 RTSVPpic.twitter.com/krHf3718Mx.” Tweet. @electionsquebec (blog), Satumba 30, 2018.

↘Ana iya amfani da kiran mutum-mutumi da tura sakonni wajen ayyukan alfasha, misalin haka ya fari lokacin zaben yan majalisan Amurka a 2018 inda wani shirin hirar rediyon fararen yan wariyar launin fata suka shirya kiran masu zabe a Florida a Georgia suna ambaton kalaman batanci da kin jinin yahudawa da yan takara masu bakar fata. 44


Amfani da WhatsApp a zabe

Da kadan, da kadan, WhatsApp ya fara zama kayan aiki ga jam’iyyun siyasa da yan takara wajen samun lambobi da ajiyesu a kamfen-kamfen a fadin duniya.

Ya nada damar hada kan rukunin mutane suna tattaunawa a farashi mai rahusa ko a kyautai amma hakan ba sabon abu ne kuma ba WhatsApp bane na farkon da zai samar da tura sakonnin da babu mai iya ganin tattaunawarku sa masu yi wato (end-to-end encryption)

Amma dai ya mamaye duniyar sakonni bisa dimbin adadin masu amfani da shi.

Kawo 2018, kimanin mutane bilyan 1.5ii ke kamfani da WhatsApp kuma ya waye gari manhajan sakonni mafi shahara a nahiyoyin Afrika, Asiya, Turai da Amurka ta kudu, inda ake amfani wajen abota da sada zumunta, kuma rukunin mutane na tattaunawa kan ra’ayi – kama daga masoya wata kungiyar kwallon kafa zuwa masu ra’ayin siyasa daya. iii

Hakazalika ya kasance manhajan shirya lamuran siyasa da shakatawa. WhatsApp na bari mutane su bude rukuni mai adadin mambobi har 256.

Yayinda a da dukkan mambobin rukunin na iya magana, wani sabon tsari da aka kawo a 2018 ya samar da yadda mutum zai iya turawa mutane da dinbin yawa sako daya ba tare bude rukuni ba.

Bugu da kari, za’a iya tura sakonni – kama daga sakonnin rubutu, magana, da bidiyo – daga cikin wani rukunin abokai zuwa wani rukuni a manhajar, domin bada dama wajen yada sakoni cikin kankanin lokaci ga mutane.

Jirgin yakin neman zabe kan iya amfani da WhatsApp wajen yada bayanai ta hanyar turawa mutane da yawa ko amfani da dabarar kirkirar rukunan abokai da yawa kuma si cika dam, or shiga cikin rukunan abokan wasu don yada labarai. iv

A kan lamarin amfani da bayanan mutum kuwa, dabarun da ake amfani da su wajen tura sakonni a WhatsApp iri daya ne da wanda ake amfani wajen kiran wayan mutum-mutumi da tura sakonni.

Lambobin WhatsApp (lambobin wayan da akayi amfani wajen bude asusun) ne bayanai mafi muhimmanci, wanda masu kamfen ke amfani wajen kai hare-haren da suke so.

Akwai wasu dilallan a yanar gizo dake sayar da lambobin WhatsApp na mutane, ba tare da fadin inda suka samo ba.

Bayan haka, akwai wasu dabarun bayan faggen da ake amfani da su wajen inganta WhatsApp, irinsu diban lambobin mutane lokaci guda daga rukunai, tura sakonni zuwa mutane fiye da wanda asali aka amince da binciken kalaman batanci da butulci. v

Bugu da kari, binciken abokan bincikenmu dake wasu kasashe sun samu cewa ana daukan mambobin jam’iyyun siyasa a wasu kasashe aiki, ana bukatar su samo daruruwan lambobin WhatsAppvi domin gina runbun lambobivii don tura sakonni. viii

Amfani da WhatsApp wajen tura sakonnin siyasa ya zama ruwan dare a fadin duniya musamman wuraren da manhajan ya shahara.

A Indiya, Kenya da Malaysiya, misali, yan siyasa na amfani da WhatsApp, jami’an jam’iyyu da mabiyansu na kokarin kawata sakonni domin turawa wasu rukunan abokai na musamman bisa yanki ko unguwa – wasu lokutan sau 30 a rana zuwa rukunai 1,000 lokaci guda – da kuma tattaunawa tsakanin juna. ix

Dalilin da yan siyasa suka dukufa wajen amfani da WhatsApp wajen cigaban harkokin siyarsu shine yunwar isa ga mai zabe kai tsaye ko ta kaka.

Amma, shaharar manhajar wajen hada kan jama’a na da abubuwan la’akari tattare da shi.

A kasar Birazil misali, WhatsApp na daya daga cikin hanyoyin samun labarai ga mutane milyan 120.

Yadda aka tsara manhajan da yadda labarai, hotuna, bidiyoyi ke yaduwa cikin karamin lokaci na wahalar da masu kokarin lura da bincike domin tabbatar da cewa ba’a wuce gona da iri.

Yayinda ake gab da zaben kasar Kenya 2017, an cika rukunan abokai a WhatsApp na siyasa da wanda ba na siyasa ba da labaran bogix, har abin ya kai ga hukumomin sadarwa a kasar sukayi barazanar damke jagororin rukunan abokai kan laifin yada labaran bogi a rukunansu. xi

Hakazalika, an yada labaran bogi sosai yayinda ake shirin zaben 2018 a kasar Brazil, inda aka ruwaito cewa magoya bayan Jair Bolsonaro sun biya kamfanonin tallace-tallace.. kudi domin tura sakonnin batanci [a WhatsApp].’ xii

Domin yakan labaran bogi a zaben Indiya a 2019, Kamfanin WhatsApp da kansa ya sanar cewa za a rage adadin lokacin da mutum zai iya tura sakonni ga rukunnan daga 20 zuwa 5. Wannan mataki ya biyo bayan yunkurin da jam’iyyun siyasan kasar Indiya ne yin a kirkirar dubunnan rukunan abokai a WhatApp domin yada labaran siyasa tamkar a WhatsApp za a yi zaben. xiii

i. ‘WhatsApp: The Widespread Use of WhatsApp in Political Campaigning in the Global South’, accessed 19 February 2019, (Yawaitan amfani da WhatApp wajen yakin neman zabe a kudanci, an duba 19 ga Febrairu 2019) https://ourdataourselves.tacticaltech.org/posts/whatsapp/. ii. Larry Kim, ‘The Top 7 Messenger Apps in the World’, Inc.com, 20 September 2018, (Manhajojin tura sakonni 7 na sama a duniya) https://www.inc.com/larry-kim/the-top-7-messenger-apps-in-world.html. iii. Rachel Kraus, ‘WhatsApp Adds Group Chat Option for Only Admins to Send Messages’, Mashable, accessed 4 March 2019, (WhatsAPp ta kara dama shugaban rukunnin abokai kadai ya iya tura sakonni, an duba 4 ga Maris 2019) https://mashable.com/article/whatsapp-group-chat-admin-only-messages/. iv. Grace Mutung’u, ‘Data and Digital Election Campaigning in Kenya’, The Influence Industry (Tactical Technology Collective, 2018), (Yakin neman zaben zamani ta hanyar amfani da bayanai a Kenya, duniya tasiri) https://ourdataourselves.tacticaltech.org/media/ttc-influence-industry-kenya.pdf. v. A basic online search for ‘WhatsApp channels for sale’, for example, returns numerous web pages offering the sale of or access to WhatsApp numbers for bulk messaging. (Wani bincike a yanar gizo mai sauki kan lambobin WhatsApp dake son siyarwa, ya nuna cewa shafuka da yawa na tallan lambobin WhatApp ga mai saya domin tura sakonni) vi. Chandan Baba, ‘How to Extract Contact List from WhatsApp Group?’, Mashtips, 6 June 2018,(Yadda ake tatso lambobi daga rukunnin abokai a WhatApp) https://mashtips.com/whatsapp-group-extract-contact/. vii ‘Bulk WhatsApp Sender Suite - WhatsApp Marketing Panel’, 30 March 2018, https://web.archive.org/web/20180330031815/http://bulkwhatsappsender.com/bulk-whatsapp-sender-suite/. viii. Gaurav Bidasaria, ‘8 WhatsApp Analytics Tool to Analyze Chat History’, TechWiser (blog), 25 February 2019, ( Injin binciken tarihin tattauna a manhajar WhtasApp) https://techwiser.com/whatsapp-analytics-tool/; Dr Nitin Paranjape, ‘WhatsApp Group Chat Analytics Using Excel and Power Query’, Effciency 365 (blog), 17 April 2014, https://effciency365.com/2014/04/17/whatsapp-group-chat-analytics-using-excel-and-power-query/; Sudharsan Ravichandiran, Whatsapp Chat Sentiment Analysis in R | Sudharsan, accessed 28 February 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYY1l0LaeHM. ix ‘WhatsApp: The Widespread Use of WhatsApp in Political Campaigning in the Global South’. (Yawaitan amfani da WhatApp wajen yakin neman zabe a kudanci,) x. Grace Mutung’u, “Data and Digital Election Campaigning in Kenya,” (Yakin neman zaben zamani ta hanyar amfani da bayanai a Kenya) xi. “WhatsApp Admins Put on Notice Ahead of Hotly Contested Elections,” Nairobi News, accessed March 6, 2019,(An nabbaha shugabannin rukunai a WhatApp gabanin zabe mai zafi, an duba 6 ga Maris 2019) https://nairobinews.nation.co.ke/news/whatsapp-admins-elections. xii. Reuters, “Facebook’s WhatsApp Flooded with Fake News in Brazil Election,” Business Insider, accessed March 6, 2019, (Manhajar WhatsApp mallakin Facebook ya cika da labaran bogi lokacin zaben Brazil) https://www.businessinsider.com/rfacebooks-whatsapp-flooded-with-fake-news-in-brazil-election-2018-10; Cristina Tardáguila, Fabrício Benevenuto, and Pablo Ortellado, “Opinion | Fake News Is Poisoning Brazilian Politics. WhatsApp Can Stop It.,” The New York Times, October 19, 2018, sec. Opinion, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/17/opinion/brazilelection-fake-news-whatsapp.html. xiii. Billy Perrigo, “How Whatsapp Is Fueling Fake News Ahead of India’s Elections,” Time, January 2019 (Shin WhatsApp na hura wutar labaran bogi gabanin zaben Indiya) http://time.com/5512032/whatsapp-india-election-2019/.



  1. Fasahohin da akayi amfani da su nan sun mayar da hankali ne kan misalai a Amurka domin nuna wasu bayanan mai zaben da ba’a sanyawa sharruda ba. Wadannan abubuwan ka iya canzawa sakamakon dokokin kare hakkin bayanai mutane a wasu kasashe. Banbancin siyasa kan iya canza wasu fasahohi. Misalin, yayinda tura sakonni ya zama ruwan dare a Amurka saboda saukinsa, an fi amfani da WhatsApp a wasu kasashe.
  2. Kevin Roose, ‘Campaigns Enter Texting Era With a Plea: Will U Vote 4 Me?’, The New York Times, 2 August 2018, sec. Technology, (An shiga wani zamanin Yakin neman zabe da ake rook: Za ka zabe ne?)https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/01/technology/campaign-text-messages.html.
  3. Sometimes simply referred to as SMS in promotional materials, see ‘I Will Run Marketplace’, accessed 8 February 2019 (Zan juya kasuwanni, an duba 8 ga Febrairu ,2019) https://iwillrun.org/voter-contact/. In this piece, ‘texting’ refers to an overall category, containing sub-categories such as ‘bulk SMS/robotexting’, peer-to-peer texting via SMS or messaging platforms like WhatsApp.
  4. ‘Push Polls and Surveys Get Live Results’, RoboCent, Inc. (blog), accessed 11 February 2019, (Zaben Push da Safiyo na samar da sakamako kai tsaye, an duba 11 ga Febrairu 2019) https://robocent.com/services/push-polls-surveys/.
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  8. ‘Reliable Voter Data for Only 3¢ a Record’, RoboCent, Inc. (blog), accessed 12 February 2019, (Sahihin Bayanan mai zabe a farashin 3¢ kacal an duba 12 ga Febrairu 2019) mihttps://robocent.com/services/voter-data/.
  9. ‘Reliable Voter Data for Only 3¢ a Record’. (Sahihin Bayanan mai zabe a farashin 3¢ kacal)
  10. Request Data’, RoboCent, Inc. (blog), accessed 20 February 2019, (Nemi Bayani, an duba 20 Febrairu 2019) https://robocent.com/request-data/.
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  13. ‘Relay—Harness the Power of P2P Texting’. (Amfani da karfin sakonnin P2P)
  14. ‘RumbleUp’.
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  23. ‘SMS Data Collection’. (Tattara bayanai SMS)
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  25. Federal Court Won’t Remove MPs over Election Robocalls | CBC News’, CBC, 24 May 2013, (Babbar kotun tarayya ba zata cire yan majalisa ba bisa amfani da mutum-mutumi mai kira waya) https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/federal-court-won-t-remove-mpsover-election-robocalls-1.1331781.
  26. For more details on CIMS, see Colin Bennett and Robin Bayley, ‘Data Analytics in Canadian Elections’, The Influence Industry (Tactical Technology Collective, 2018), (Binciken bayanai a zaben kasar Canada; duniya tasiri) https://ourdataourselves.tacticaltech.org/media/ttc-influence-industry-canada.pdf.
  27. ‘Federal Court Won’t Remove MPs over Election Robocalls | CBC News’. (Babbar kotun tarayya ba zata cire yan majalisa ba bisa amfani da mutum-mutumi mai kira waya)
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  29. Glen McGregor and Stephen Maher, ‘Robocalls Court Filings Shed New Light on Case, Possible Sona Involvement’, Canada.Com, 25 August 2013, (Kararrakin da aka shigar kan kiran wayan mutum-mutumi ta kara haske cikin lamarin, da yiwuwa Sona na da hannu) http://www. canada.com/life/Robocalls+court+flings+shed+light+case+possible+Sona+involvement/8835526/story.html.
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  32. Boo Su-Lyn, ‘The Influence Industry - Voter Data in Malaysia’s 2018 Elections’. ), (Duniya Tasiri – Bayanan mai zabe a zaben Malaysiya na 2018)
  33. Jasper Jackson, ‘Leave.EU Campaign Fined £50,000 for Sending Spam Texts’, The Guardian, 11 May 2016, sec. Media, (An ci tarar Leave.EU £50,000 kan tura sakonni) https://www.theguardian.com/media/2016/may/11/leave-eu-campaign-fned-50000-for-sending-spam-texts.
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  41. WhatsApp: The Widespread Use of WhatsApp in Political Campaigning in the Global South’. (Yawaitan amfanin da WhatsApp wajen yakin neman zabe a kudu)
  42. ‘‘Analysis | Saturday Will Be Nigeria’s First WhatsApp Election. Here’s What We’re Learning about “Fake News.”’, Washington Post, accessed 19 February 2019, (Ranar Asabar zata zama karon farko da za’ayi zaben WhatsApp a Najeriya. Ga abubuwan da muke koya game da labaran bogi, an duba 19 ga Febrairu 2019) https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2019/02/15/its-nigerias-frstwhatsapp-election-heres-what-were-learning-about-how-fake-news-spreads/.
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  44. Justin Wise, ‘Gillum Targeted by New Racist Robocall in Florida: Report’, Text, TheHill, 23 October 2018, (Sabon kiran mutum-mutumi mai nuna bangaranci da wariyar launin fata ya kaiwa Gillum) harihttps://thehill.com/homenews/campaign/412782-gillum-targeted-by-new-racist-robocall-attacking-him-as-a-negro; Emily Birnbaum,‘Stacey Abrams, Oprah Targeted by Racist Robocall Funded by White Supremacist Group’, Text, TheHill, 3 November 2018, https://thehill.com/homenews/campaign/414703-abrams-targeted-by-racist-robocall-in-georgia.
  45. Elections Québec, ‘Important! Un faux message texte circule présentement. Sachez u’en aucun cas, Élections Québec ne demanderait une rétribution ou n’offrirait une émunération liée à l’exercice du droit de vote aux élections générales. En cas de doute 888 353-2846. #polqc #QC2018 RT SVPpic.twitter.com/krHf3718Mx’, Tweet, electionsquebec (blog), 30 September 2018, https://twitter.com/electionsquebec/ tatus/1046425834041618433/photo/1.