Tasiri wajen amsoshi yayinda kake bincike: Isa ga masu kada kuri’a a zabe masu tambayoyi

Me ake nufi da Tasiri wajen amsoshi yayinda kake bincike?

Yin bincike a yanar gizo na daya daga cikin hanyoyin da muke samun sabbin bayanai, ilimi da tabbatar da labarai, kuma ta wannan dalili, samun iya tasiri wajen bada amshohin na da muhimmanci ga masu yakin neman zaben da ke son tasiri a kan ka kafin da lokacin zabe, da wasu harkokin siyasa.

Kama daga kafa tallace-tallace yayinda amsoshin tambayarke ke fitowa, zuwa yin tasiri kan amsoshin da kansu, masu yakin neman zabe na bada karfi wajen turo talla yayinda ka mika bukatar bincike a yanar gizo.1

Bincike a injin Google da Youtube ne manyan hanyoyin samun bayanai a yanar gizo ga mutane da yawa kuma an dogara sosai a kansu wajen kara ilimi, shakatawa da tabbatar da sihhancin abu.2

Injin Google ne wanda aka fi amfani a fadin duniya wajen bincike, kuma ya game kashi 90% na kwamfutocin duniya.

Kuma kamfanin Google ne ya samar da Youtube, wanda ya zama injin bincike na biyu mafi shahara a fadin duniya, yayinda mutane ke amfani da shi wajen kallon bidiyoyi da kuma neman ilimi da bayanai a yanar gizo.

Kwarewar da Google da Youtube ke da shi wajen nuna maka tallan da ke da alaka da abinda kake nema a yanar gizo ya maishesu manyan hanyoyin kamfen da yan siyasa zasu bukata wajen turo sakonninsu zuwa ga mutane cikin tsauri, inganci da daidaici. 3

Yadda Google ke abubuwansa a bayyane musamman yadda mutane ke daukarsa a matsayin abin nazari daya tilo ya maishe shi abin sha’awa ga masu yakin neman zabe da ke bukatar yada labarai.

Ta yaya yake aiki?

Idan ka bincike abu a yanar gizo, za ka samu sakamako iri biyu: Sakamakon gaskiya da na’urorin kamfanin ke kawowa, da kuma sakamakon da wasu suka biya kamfanin saboda su kasance a sama-sama.

Sakamakon gasken da na kudi kan fito lokaci guda, amma da wani alamar ‘ad’ da ake sanyawa karkashin wadanda aka biya.

Duk da cewa suna kokarin nuna daidaito da gaskiya, za’a iya amfani da sakamakon bincike wajen tasiranta abubuwan da mutane ke gani, musamman idan siyasa ta shiga.

Wani bincike da aka wallafa a 2015 ya yi kokarin duba tasirin sakamakon bincike kan masu zaben da basu yanke shawarar wanda zasu kadawa kuri’a ba – yana mai gwada abinda mawallafan suka kira SEME (Tasirin juya hankula a sakamakon bincike). 4

Bincike ya bayyana cewa na’urorin bada sakamako inda mutum ya tura bukata na iya canza ra’ayoyin wadanda basu yanke shawarar wanda zasu kadawa kuri’a ba da kashi 20% ko fiye da haka har zuwa kashi 80% a wasu wurare – ba tare da wani ya san ana juyan hankulansu ba. 5

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Ballin hoto daga rahoton bayyana gaskiyan tallan yakin neman zaben a Google, wanda ke nuna wadanda suka biya kudi mafi yawa tsakanin Mayuun 31 ga Mayuu da 5 ga watan Maris 2019. Hoton ad sin ya nuna kudin da aka kashe.
Asali: ‘Google Political Advertising Transparency Report’, An duba 14 Maris 2019.

Masu yakin neman zabe na iya zuba kudi cikin dabarun tasiri kan ire-iren sakamakon bincike biyu:

Sakamakon bincike na gaske: Sakamakon bincike na gaske na zuwa ne kai tsaye daga na’urorin injin bincike.

Yayinda ba za’a iya tasiri kan sakamakon binciken gaske da kudi ba, masu tallace-tallace da yan siyasa na iya kokarin tasiri kan sakamakon gasken da kanta – abinda aka fi kira ga ingatawar injin bincike (SEO) – kuma su kan samu nasara.

SEO na amfani da wani jerin hanyoyi wajen daga darajar wani shafi a yanar gizo bisa kiyasin yadda na’urar hanyoyin bayanan injin binciken ke aiki wacce akafi sani da Algorithm.

SEO shahrarran abu ne wajen mafi yawan masu hada shafin yanar gizo, wanda ya hada da shafukan yan siyasa, kuma akwai ayyukan daban-daban da ake yi domin taimakawa jam’iyyun siyasa wajen samun nasarori. 6

A bangare guda kuwa, akwai wasu abubuwan da akafi sani da dabarun SEO masu bakaken hula, wannan wasu dabaru ne da ya saba dokokin injin bincike, kuma masu yin kan fuskanci ukubar rufe shafinsu a yanar gizo idan kamfanin ya gano. 7

Masu yakin neman zabe sun shahara da amfani da dukkan wadannan dabaru, duk da cewa SEO na halal ne akafi sani.

Sakamakon binciken da ake biya: Sabanin sakamakon binciken gaske, sakamakon da ake biya – irinsu Google Ads – wasu sakamako ne da ake fitarwa bisa bayanan da injin binciken ta samu naka, wanda ya hada da tarihin shafukan da ka bincika a baya, wuraren da ka ziyarta, abubuwan da kayi a manhajojin kamfanin Google daban-daban, misali bidiyoyin Youtube da ka kalla.

Masu yakin neman zabe na sayan Google Ads ta hanyar gwanjo, ana gwanjon ne kan irin kalmomin da kayi amfani da shi wajen tambaya.

Sai a bayyanasu daraja-daraja bisa farashin da mai talla ke shirin biya da kuma lissafin irin amfanin da Ad din zai yiwa binciken. Wadannan Ads din na iya nuna kalmoni masu muhimmanci ko hotuna ko kuma lambobin waya. Bugu da kari, Ads na bincike na baiwa masu talla damar canje-canjen kalmomi – irinsu kanin labarai daban-daban – kuma zasu iya samar da wasu iri bisa yadda abin yayi aiki. 8

Wadannan dimbin ayyuka da kamfanin Google ke yi na inganta Ads na yan siyasa wajen baka sakamkon binciken da kayi, kuma yana baiwa yan siyasa dabaru iri-iri da zasu iya amfani wajen shiga hurumin bincikenka domin isar maka da wani sako na musamman.

Saboda haka, Ana iya amfani da Sakamakon binciken da aka biya bisa bayananka wajen abubuwa daban-daban – ba kawai don tura ka dannan waje ko zaben wani ba, amma don bata sunan abokan hamayya ko yada labaran martani kan wani lamari dake tashe a kafafen yada labarai. 9

A lokacin da zabe, abin na iya tsananta yayinda masu yakin zabe za su rika sayan Ads domin raddi ga juna.

isali, wani masani dabarun yakin neman zabe ya bada shawara a yanar gizo kan yadda zaka yi raddi kan Ads da akayi amfani wajen cin mutuncin dan takaranka kamar haka: Masu kada kuri’a da suke da ilimin Ads zasuyi kokarin amfani da yanar gizo wajen bincika da kansu, ta hanyar sayan abubuwan da ke da muhimmanci ga cin Ads din, za ka iya yakar sakonsu ta hanyar tura masu zabe zuwa shafinka da tuni ka yi watsi da ikirarin.

Da wadannan Ads din, zaka iya watsa labarai masu muhimmanci cikin karamin lokaci da karyata abokan hamayya. 10

Cece-kuce sun yawaita kan shin sakamakon binciken da aka biya na siyasa zai iya tasiri kan zabe. Amma tun watan Mayun 2018, Google ya kawo manyan sauye-sauye kan yadda suke karban tallace-tallacen siyasa, bisa yadda harkokin siyasa da zabe ke gudana a kasashe daban-daban:

↘ A lokacin da ake shirye-shiryen zaben raba gardama kan hallacin zub da ciki a kasar Ireland a Mayun 2018, Google ya yanke shawaran haramta dukkan tallace-tallacen da ke da alaka da zaben raba gardaman a shafin. 11

↘Kamfanin ya bayyana Tallace-tallacen Siyasan da aka yi a Amurka12 a rahoton bayyana gaskiya saboda masu ruwa da tsaki su ga Ads din da aka saya daga ranar 31 ga Mayu, 2018 da kuma wasu karin bayanai, irinsu adadin mutanen da suka ga tallan da kuma kudin da aka kashe. 13

↘ Kamfanin ya sanya wasu ka’idojin kuntatawa kan tallace-tallacen yan siyasa, misali sai tallan ya bayyana wanda ke daukan nauyi, da kuma bukatun sabon mai talla masu alaka da lokutan zabe, kamar a Indiya da gamayyar kasashen Turai EU a shekarar 2019. 14

↘ A Maris 2019, Google ya sanar da cewa za su haramta dukkan tallace-tallacen ya siyasa akan shafinsu yayinda ake shirye-shiryen zaben kasar Canada. 15

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Ballin hoto daga rahoton Google, wanda ke nuna adadin ads da aka saya da kudin da kwamitin yakin neman zaben Trump ta kashe, karkashin jagorancin Brad Parscale, tsakanin 31 ga Mayuu 2018 zuwa 6 ga Maris 2019.
Asali: ‘Political Advertising on Google – TRUMP MAKE AMERICA GREAT AGAIN COMMITTEE’, An duba 13 Maris 2019.

Wasu misalai

A kasar Kenya: A binciken da Tactical Tech ta gudanar kan yakin neman zabe ta hanyar amfani da bayanan mutane a Kenya, mawallafin ya ruwaito cewa yayinda ake shirin zaben 2017 tsakanin Uhuru Kenyatta, shugaban jam’iyyar Jubilee Party a lokacin, da Raila Amolo Odinga na jam’iyyar National Super Alliance (NASA), yan kasar Kenya sun bayyana cewa sun ga talla a shafin binciken Google dake muzantawa dan takarar jam’iyyar hamayya, Raila Odinga.

Talla na kawo sakamako irinsu ‘Dalilai 12 da ya sa kada ku taba yarda da jam’iyyar NASA’ yayinda mutane suka rubuta Kalmar ‘abin kunya’. Kuma mutane sun bayyana hotunan shaida tsakaninsu da ke nuna cewa idan ka rubuta Kalmar ‘Unga’ (Garin masara) a Google, sakamakon da zai fara fitowa shine labarin yadda Uhuru Kenyatta ya rage farashinsa, duk da cewa lokacin abu ne da ake matukar muhawara a kai. 16

Hakan na nuna yadda tasiri kan sakamakon bincike ya zama hanya daya da jam’iyyun biyu suka yi amfani wajen tura sakonnin batanci kan juna.

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Ballin hotunan waya da aka samu daga binciken abokin aikinmu dake Kenya yayinda ake shirin zaben kasar Kenya a 2017 wanda ke nuna talla a sakamakon Google dake bata Raila Odinga (jam’iyyar adawa) kuma yake yabawa Uhuru (shugaban kasa a lokacin)
Asali: Tactical Tech, 2018.

Ta yaya zan sani idan yana shafa na?

Tun lokacin da Google ya canza ka’idoji kan tallace-tallacen siyasa, za ka iya ganin wani tsokaci kan sakon talla domin ganin wanda ya biya, dangane da kasar da kake.

Amma ba za ka iya ganin dalilin da yasa kake samun tallar ba ko bayanan da akayi amfani da su.

Za ka iya amfani da dakin ajiyan tallace-tallacen Google wajen ganin tallar siyasan da ka gani, da kudin da aka kashe kan tallar, da irin tallar (Hotuna, bidiyo ko rubutu). Amma a lokacin da muke wannan rubutun, hakan na yiwuwa ne a Amurka kadai.

Za a iya shirya sakamakon bincike bisa sabon wallafa, ‘kudin da aka kashe – mafi yawa zuwa mafi karanci’ ko ‘Adadin wadanda suka duba – mai yawa zuwa mara yawa.’

Duk da hakan, kawo Maris 2019, ba zaka samu tallar siyasa da bata dauke da sunan wani dan takara ko ma’aikacin gwamnati a Google ba.

A karshe, za ka iya duba bayananka da akayi amfani a binciken Google da Youtube ta hanyar duba labaran da saitinka. 17

Abubuwan la’akari

↘ Rashin tsada da saukin biyan kudin sakamakon bincike, irinsu Google Ads, na nufin cewa masu yakin neman zabe marasa arziki mai yawa zasu iya shiga abun kuma su samu isar da sako ga mutanen da haka kawai ba zasu samu daman isar da sako garesu ba. Wani mai binciken jirgin neman zabe ya bayyana a shafin yanar gizonsu: ‘Daya daga cikin kyawawan abu game da Google Ads shine suna da rahusa matuka kuma zaka iya isa da sako da kudi mara yawa.'18

↘ Talla mai rahusa na iya zama wani abun nuna daidaito tsakanin jam’iyyun siyasan da basu da isasshen kudin kashewa kan allon talla da talla a kan gidajen talabijin kuma a hakan za su iya yakin neman zabe mai inganci.

↘ A wani bangare kuwa, manyan jam’iyyun siyasa masu kudi za su iya durkufar da kananan jam’iyyu tare da mamaye ko ina.

↘ An tabbatar kuma an katabta cewa manyan jam’iyyun siyasa dake kashe makudan kudi na samun taimako daga Google, musamman wajen bincike.

Wani binciken da Daniel Kreiss da Shannon McGregor suka gudanar ya katabta ayyukan kamfanin Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter da Google lokacin zaben shugaban kasan Amurka a 2016. 19

Binciken ya hada da rahoton kungiyar Campaign for Accountability, wacce ta samu: Ma’aikatan Google na aiki da wasu masu yakin neman zabe inda wani lokaci ba ka iya banbantasu saboda yadda sukayi tsamo-tsamo ciki.

Wannan cakuse, da aka baiwa kowani bangaren masu neman kujeran shugaban kasa a 2016, ya taimakawa yan siyasa wajen isa ga masu zabe, shirya sakonninsu, zana musu talla, da kuma mayar da martani ga abokan hamayyarsu lokacin muhawara da bayan muhawara. 20

↘ Rahoton nuna gaskiya da Google ke yi muhimmin mataki ne kuma abu mai amfani, amma ba ya bayyana bayanai irinsu inda, dalili da lokacinda aka sanya Ads din, wanda shine abu mafi muhimmanci a injin bincike.

Bayan haka, yayinda tallace-tallacen zamani suka zama na na’ura, ta inda ake samar da daruruwa ko dubunnan misalai wajen bayar da sakamako, runbun ajiyan zai rage muhimmanci da yawan kaya.

↘ Kasancewan Kamfanin Google ya mamaye kasuwar gaba daya ta Google Search da YouTube na nuna cewa an sallama gaba daya rayuwar siyasa hannun kamfani daya, wanda a lamarin tallace-tallacen zamani tana gyara da kanta.

↘ Akwai muhawara da ya yadu kan zurfin da na’urorin Google da kansu suke amfani da bayanan mutane wajen fito da sakamakon bincike saboda luran da aka yi cewa sukan kawata sakamako ta yadda zaka ga mafi amfani, binciken da kayi a baya ko irin na’urar da kayi amfani (waya ko komfuta), kuma zuwa wani matsayi hakan ke tasiri kan sakamakon bukatar da kayi ko kuma siyasa ta shiga. 21

A jawabai kan Tuwita da yawa a Agusta 2018, Donald Trump ya tuhumi Google Search da laifin nuna rashin daidaito kan kafafen yada labaran dake goyon bayan jam’iyyarsa, inda yayi ikirarin cewa an yi masa magudi saboda sakamakon dake fitowa idan aka binciki ‘Trump News’ a Google na nuna sakonnin tashar CNN maimakon tashohin da ke goyon bayan jam’iyyarsa Republican.22

Duk da cewa tuhume-tuhume Trump basu zo da hujjoji ba, Google ya gayyaci manema labarai zuwa ganawarsu domin ganin ainihin yadda injin bincikensu ke aiki. 23

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Maganganun Donald Trump a Twitter, a nuna su a nan, suna da ikon yada rudu kan yadda Google za ta iya kan ra’ayin siyasa.
Asali: ‘Twitter’, 28 Agusta 2018.

↘ Duk da cewa Google na ikirarin cewa basu amfani da bayanan mutane wajen sakin sakamakon binciken gaske, muhawara na gudana kan yadda ake inganta sakamakon bincike bisa kyawu ko hai’an wani bincike na musamman da zai iya tasiri kan yadda ake ajiye sakamako da baiwa mutane. 24

Adadin bayanan mutane da ake amfani da shi yayin saki sakamakon bincike na canzawa lokaci bayan lokaci. 25

Dukkan wadannan na da muhimmanci musamman ga yakin neman zabe saboda bincike ya nuna cewa fasahar tace bayanai, bisa abubuwan da ka bincike a baya, na kara yawaita lokacin da binciken ke da alaka da lamuran siyasa ko yan takaran zabe. 26

Dukkan wadannan misalan sun tattari kasar Amurka ne, amma tun da ana amfani da Google Search da YouTube a fadin duniya, akwai hadari a wasu kasashe.


  1. ‘Worldwide marked share of search engines’, (Injinan bincike da aka ayyana a fadin duniya) https://www.statista.com/statistics/216573/worldwide-market-shareof-search-engines/, accessed 8 March 2019
  2. David Mogensen, ‘YouTube Content for I-Want-to-Do Moments’, accessed 7 March 2019, https://www.thinkwithgoogle.com/marketing-resources/micromoments/i-want-to-do-micro-moments/.
  3. Michelle Castillo, ‘Google is trying to earn more money from YouTube by capitalizing on people using it for searches’, accessed 7 March 2019, (Google na kokarin samun kudi daga YouTube ta hanyar mutanen da ke amfani da shi wajen bincike, an duba 7 ga Maris 2019) https://www.cnbc.com/2018/10/01/youtube-will-now-show-you-more-adsbasedon-your-search-habits.html.
  4. Robert Epstein and Ronald E. Robertson. “The Search Engine Manipulation Effect (SEME) and Its Possible Impact on the Outcomes of Elections.”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Aug. 2015, p. 201419828. (SEME da irin tasirin da zai iya wa sakamakon zabe) www.pnas.org, doi:10.1073/pnas.1419828112.
  5. Robert Epstein, ‘How Google Could Rig the 2016 Election’, POLITICO Magazine, accessed 7 March 2019, (Yadda Google za ta iya murde zaben 2016, an duba 7 ga Maris, 2019) https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/08/how-google-could-rig-the-2016-election-121548.html.
  6. Harnoor Kaur, ‘SEO for Political Campaigns: Strategies for Election Season SEO Mechanic’, SEO Mechanic, March 13, 2016, accessed 7 March 2019, (SEO don yakin neman zabe: Dabarun kakar zabe, an duba 7 ga Maris 2019) https://www.seomechanic.com/seo-political-campaigns/.
  7. John Rampton, ‘25 Black Hat Techniques That Are Killing Your SEO’, Forbes, accessed 7 March 2019, (Fasahohin Black Hat dake kashe SEO, an duba 7 ga Maris 2019) https://www.forbes.com/sites/johnrampton/2015/07/29/25-black-hat-techniques-that-are-killing-your-seo/.
  8. Google Ads, AdWords Tutorial from Google - Step 4: How AdWords Works, accessed 7 March 2019,(Googgle Ads, darrusan AdWords daga Google: Yadda AdWords ke aiki, an duba 7 ga Maris 2019) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xH4Tlnes3ew.
  9. ‘Putting Machine Learning into the Hands of Every Advertiser’, accessed 7 March 2019, (Sanya koyarwan mashina hannun masu talla, an duba 7 ga Mairs 2019) https://www.blog.google/technology/ads/machine-learninghands-advertisers/.
  10. ‘Political Online Advertising Strategies with Google AdWords’, accessed 7 March 2019, (Dabarun tallen zaben yanar gizo da Google AdWords, an duba 7 ga Maris 2019) http://www.newmediacampaigns.com/page/political-onlineadvertising-strategies-near-election-day.
  11. ‘Transparent Referendum Initiative – For an Open, Truthful and Honest Debate’, accessed 7 March 2019, http://tref.ie/.
  12. At the time of writing this service was only available for US political advertisements.(Yayin rubutun nan, ana iya amfani da wannan wajen tallen zabe ne a Amurka kadai)
  13. ‘Google Transparency Report’, accessed 7 March 2019, https://transparencyreport. google.com/political-ads/library?hl=en.
  14. ‘Political Content - Advertising Policies Help’, accessed 7 March 2019, (Rubutun siyasa: Ka’idojin talle na da amfani) https://support.google.com/adspolicy/answer/6014595?hl=en.
  15. ‘Google to Ban Political Ads Ahead of Federal Election, Citing New Transparency Rules’, accessed 7 March 2019, (Google za ta haramta tallen siyasa gab da zabe, cikin sabon dokokin gaskya, an duba 7 ga Maris 2019) https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-google-to-ban-political-ads-ahead-of-federal-election-citingnew/.
  16. Influence Industry case study on Kenya by Grace Mutung’u, ‘Kenya: Data and Digital Election Campaigning’, accessed 7 March 2019, (Kenya: Bayanai da yakin neman zaben zamani, an duba 7 ga Maris 2019) https://ourdataourselves.tacticaltech.org/posts/overview-kenya/.
  17. ‘Google Account’, accessed 7 March 2019, https://myaccount.google.com/ intro/data-and-personalization.
  18. ‘Political Online Advertising Strategies with Google AdWords’, accessed 7 March 2019, (Dabarun tallen zaben yanar gizo da Google AdWords, an duba 7 ga Maris 2019) (http://www.newmediacampaigns.com/page/political-onlineadvertising-strategies-near-election-day.
  19. Daniel Kreiss & Shannon C. McGregor (2018)Technology Firms Shape Political Communication: The Work of Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter, and Google With Campaigns During the 2016 U.S. Presidential Cycle, (Aikin Microsoft, Facebook Twitter dda Google da yakin neman zabe a zaben Amurkan 2016) DOI:10.1080/10584609.2017.1364814
  20. ‘Partisan Programming: How Facebook and Google’s Campaign Embeds Beneft Their Bottom Lines’, Campaign for Accountability, accessed 7 March 2019, https://campaignforaccountability.org/work/partisanprogramminghow-facebook-and-googles-campaign-embeds-beneft-theirbottom-lines/.
  21. ‘Measuring the Filter Bubble: How Google Is Influencing What You Click’, DuckDuckGo Blog, accessed 7 March 2019, (Auna Filter Bubble: Yadda Google tasiri kan abinda kake dannawa) https://spreadprivacy.com/google-flter-bubble-study/.
  22. Ginger Gibson and Susan Heavey, ‘White House Probes Google after Trump Accuses It of Bias’, Reuters, accessed 7 March 2019, (Fadar White House ta bincike Google bayan Trump ya zargeta da rashin daidaito) https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trump-tech-idUSKCN1LD1I1.
  23. Jillian D’ Onfro, CNBC, accessed 7 March 2019, https://www.cnbc. com/2018/09/17/google-tests-changes-to-its-search-algorithm-how-searchworks.html
  24. Nick Statt, ‘Google Personalizes Search Results Even When You’re Logged out, New Study Claims’, The Verge, accessed 7 March 2019, (Google na amfani da sakamakon bincike ko ka fita, sabon bincike ya nuna, an duba 7 ga Maris 2019) https://www.theverge.com/2018/12/4/18124718/google-search-resultspersonalizedunique-duckduckgo-flter-bubble.
  25. ‘Google Admits It’s Using Very Limited Personalization in Search Results’, Search Engine Land, accessed 7 March 2019, (Google ta amince tayi amfani da takaitaccen sakamakon bincike, an duba 7 ga Maris 2019) https://searchengineland.com/google-admits-its-using-very-limited-personalization-in-searchresults-305469.
  26. Julia Angwin, ‘On Google, a Political Mystery That’s All Numbers’, Wall Street Journal, November 4, 2012, sec. Tech, accessed 7 March 2019,(Kan Google, wani asirin siyasa da lambobi ne kawai) https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970203347104578099122530080836.