Bibiya daga wani na-gefe: Kukis, Bikons, zanen yatsu da sauransu

Bibiya daga wani na-gefe: Kukis, Bikons, zanen yatsu da sauransu

Menene bibiyar wani na-gefe?

Idan jirgin yakin neman zabe ya na so ya tallata sakonninsa ga matan da su ke da sha’awar littafin Injila, da masu ra’ayin siyasar mutanen jiya da mazauna, za ta iya zuwa gaban dinbin ‘yan kasuwa da dilallan da ake da su wadanda su ka mallaki tulin bayanan mutane. Wannan shi ne ainhin abin da jirgin yakin neman zaben Sanata Jim Bender a mazabar New Hampshire ya yi a 2010 da taimakon wani kamfanin kasuwanci mai suna RapLeaf.(1) Amma ta ya aka yi RapLeaf ya san wadanda su ke da sha’awar littafin Injila da yanayin mazauna? Kuma ta ya jiragen yakin zabe da kamfanonin fasaha su ke tabbatar da wannan bayanai na miliyoyin masu zabe da su ke tunkahor cewa sun mallaka.

Amsar a nan ita ce ta na’urorin bibiya

Ana amfani da manhajoji da-dama wajen bibiyar jama’a yayin da su ke lalube a shafin yanar gizo ko wasu kafafen sadarwa a wayoyin salula (3). Ana amfani da wadannan a wajen fannin harkar kasuwanci da kafafen sadarwar zamani irinsu kukis, kikons, zanen yatsu, harin adireshin IP, ma’adanar HTML, bayanan wurare na GPS da sauransu. A shekarun bayan nan, an samu matukar cigaba a harkar na’urorin bibiyar harkar siyasa da kasuwanci. (4) Kusan duka masu yakin nema zabe su na amfani da su. (5). Asali ma da yawansu su kan tallata ‘kukin siyasa’, wani sala na bayani da za a iya amfani da shi wajen bankado kamanceceniyar mutum a kan yanar gizo da wasu bayanai da ke kansa da ba su kan yanar gizon, misali; rajistar jam’iyya, tarihin siyasa, gudumuwa mai tsoka, adireshi, shekaru da kuma abubuwan da mutum ya ke sha’awa. (6)

A lokacin da aka gauraya kundin mai zabe da bayanan da aka fansa a wajen dillalai, kamar yadda shugaban wani kamfani ya ke bayani; ‘Ana aiki da kusan manyan shafukan yanar gizo 100 da su ke yi wa masu amfani da su rajista, za a iya yin kicibis da bayanan da su ka yi daidai da tambarin mutanen da ke a wajen yanar gizo.’ (7)

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Wannan wasu sassan bidiyon da DSPolitical ta wallafa a shafinta. Jawabin muryan da akayi na da alaka da kukis da bayanan mai zabe: ‘muna daukan kukis domin hadasu da kundin mai zabe.’
Asali: ‘DSPolitical Brings Technology It Pioneered in U.S. to UK’, DSPolitical, 17 Febrairu 2015.

Wannan duba kamanceceniya da ake yi ya na yiwuwa ne saboda shafukan yanar gizon yakin zabe su na damar ba wasu bare daga waje bayanan masu bibiyarsu shafinsu, wannan ya na cikin kwamacalar tsare-tsaren sirrinsu. A zabukan ‘yan majalisun da aka yi kwanan nan a kasar Amurka, an samu bare su na bibiyar kashi 87% na shafukan yanar gizon da ke da alaka da ‘yan takara.

Ko da an samu dokokin kare hakkin bayanai, dokokin su kan zama ba su da wani amfani; babu ko guda daga cikin shafukan ‘yan takara 11 a zaben shugaban kasar Faransa a 2017 da su ka bi dokokin kasar sau da kafa a game da yadda ake samun amincewar mai ziyarar shafi da kuma amfani da kukis.

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A binciken da Ghostery, wani mai bibiyan kamfanin Google, Facebook da Twitter ya gudanar, an same su da kashi 75%, 53% and 30%, daga cikin shafukan yanar gizo 981 dake da alaka da yan takaran kujeran majalisan Amurka a 2018.
Asali: ‘2018 Midterm Election Study’, Ghostery, 30 Oktoba 2018, An duba 11 Maris 2019.

Ya ake amfani da bayananka?

↘ Kukis: Ba kowane kukis ne ba shi da kyau ba, asali ma shafuka iri-iri su na amfani da kukis ta hanyar da ta dace wajen tunawa da muhimman abubuwa irinsu bayanan shiga shafi, da wasu kaya da ke cikin cefanen mutum a shafukan hada-hada (11). Irin wadannan kukis na matakin farko su kan inganta dadin amfani da shafi, yayin da sauran kukis na wasu bare su ke bin diddikin abin da mutum ya ke lalube a shafin gizo.

Wadannan kukis na wasu daga gefe abin damuwa ne sosai game da sirrin mutum saboda kamfanin kukis guda zai iya bibiyar shafuka rututu. Alal misali: A lokacin da ake shirin zabe, mai kada kuri’a zai iya so ya yi bincike ta hanyar ziyarar shafin da ke da alaka da ‘dan takararsa. Ko da cewa ‘dan takarar da jam’iyyar sun sha ban-bam, wadannan shafuka za su iya haska talla da na’ura guda. Na’urar haska tallarsu za ta iya bin diddikin ayyukan da mutum ya ke yi kamar bada gudumuwa, shiga sahun masu karanta labarai, ko ma duk abin da aka latsa.

Daga nan kamfanin da ke bibiyar masu ziyartar shafin gizo zai iya tattara tarihin adireshin da mutum ya ziyarta, ya hada shi da wasu bayanai game da mutumin da aka samu daga waje. Bayan nan kuma – ko da an kai ziyara ne zuwa shafukan da ba su da alaka (da ‘yan takara) – za a iya samu ana tallata wannan ‘dan takara ko manufofinsa bisa la’akari da shafukan da mutum ya rika kai wa ziyara wajen bincikensa.

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Wani abu da aka turawa labaran Amurka da duniya daga masu yakin neman zaben shugabancin kasan Jeb Bush a 2016 ya nuna yadda suka rika haram mutane, ba shafi ko na’ura ba.’
Asali: ‘Jeb Bush’s Campaign Blueprint’, 29 Oktoba 2015.

↘ Hoton bibiya: ‘Tracking Pixels’ fasahar zanen hoto ne wanda ba a gani da su ke fitowa a wasu shafuka daga wasu bare a waje. A yayin da mai amfani da shafi bai iya ganin wannan hoto, wanda ke gefe guda zai iya tattara bayanai game da na’urar da ake amfani da ita, misali kayan aki, adireshin IP, saitin hawa yanar gizo. Bayan tarihin shafukan da aka ziyara, wannan dabara zai iya aiki wajen gane cewa an bude sakon E-mail ko ba ayi ba. Masu yakin neman zabe su kan kuma yi amfani da su wajen gano wadanda su ka fara bada gudumuwa amma ba su karasa ba domin a karkata masu da fam din gudumuwa. (14) NationBuilder, wata fitacciyar manhajar yakin neman zabe ta tattara sharuda “Ta ya zan cusa hoton bibiya a kan shafina?”

↘ Tambarin hawa yanar gizo: Browser fingerprinting fasaha ce da ta ke tattara siffofin manhajar hawa yanar gizo (irinsu lokaci, harshe, da salon rubutu) domin a rika gane ta. Yayin da ake iya goge kukis, sannan ana iya toshe wasu fasahar bibiyar shafukan, share tambarin shafin yanar gizo ya na da wahala kuma da wuya a iya masa wani siddabaru.

↘ Bikons: Bikons wasu na’urori ne na zahiri da su ke sanin zaman duk wasu na’urorin salula da ke wuri. 17 Kamfanin Beaconstac wanda ke kera na’urorin bikons na tafi da gidanka, sun kawo shawarar a samu wasu ‘yan sa-kai da za su rika kafa bikon wajen gangamin yakin neman zabe domin su samu bayanai game da na’urorin da ke kewayensu, wanda za ayi amfani da su wajen gano mahalartar gangamin. (18), (19) Ana iya amfani da jeringiyar mahalartar da wasu bayanan da aka samu daga dillalai.

↘ Harin adireshin IP da sauran wasu dabarun: Yakin neman zabe ya na tashi daga bibiyar kukis zuwa manyan fasahohi irinsu harin adireshin na’ura ta IP da sa ido a kan ficen na’urori. Bayan bada adireshin na’ura a yanar gizo, lambar IP ta kan kuma bayyana takamaimen wurin da na’ura ta ke. Masu yakin neman zabe su na dakon na’urorin da aka turke a adireshin gidaje. 22. Za a iya bin Kadin wayoyin salula ta fasahar ‘Geofencing’ wanda ta ke bibiyar inda masu amfani da na’ura su ka shiga ta hanyar la’akari da bayanansu na GPS da za a iya samu daga Wi-Fi, Bluetooth. Wasu dabarun zamani su na kara barkowa; wani sabon bincike da aka yi ya gano fasahohi 70 da ake amfani da su wajen gano ayyukar mutane kamar bude sako a akwatin email.

Wasu misalai:

A kasar Kolombiya: A lokacin babban zaben kasar Kolombiya na shekarar 2018, wani nazari da aka yi a game da manyan ‘yan takarar ya nuna an yi matukar aiki da baren na’urorin bibiyar mutane. Daga cikin shafukan yanar gizon manyan ‘yan takara 21 a zaben, ‘yan takara takwas sun kafa na’urar bibiyar shafin Facebook, 12 su na da na’urorin bibiyar Twitter, sai kuma ‘yan takara (11) su na bibiyar shafin gudumuwa. Daga cikin jam’iyyun siyasa 10, biyar su na da na’urar bibiyar Facebook, bakwai su na da na Twittter, sai kuma biyar su na da wasu na’urorin a kan shafukan gudumuwar mutane. Kamar yadda wani (wanda ya nemi a sakaya sunansa) daga cikin wanda ya ya yi wa wani ‘dan takara aikin yakin zabe ya bayyana a wata hira: “Idan ka shiga shafin yanar gizon (‘dan takarar jam’iyya), sai ka koma dandalin Facebook, hotunansa za su fara yawo. Ana yin wannan ne da wata manhaja (wata manhajar bare ta samun bayanai daga Facebook). Wani mai dabarar aiki da kafafen zamani ya na cewa: “A bangaren kasuwanci, abin da mutane su ke yi shi ne [...] a fara jefa maka kukis daga lokacin da ka bude na’urar gafaka zuwa lokacin da aka rufe ta.24

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Wannan taswira dake nuna yadda aka tattara bayani a shafin yanar gizon jam’iyyar da wani dan takara a Columbia. Musamman, kashi 38% na yan takaran 21 na da kukis, hade da na Twitter 57%.
Asali: Varoon Bashyakarla, ‘Colombia: Personal Data in the 2018 Legislative and Presidential Elections’, An duba 26 Febrairu 2019.

A cikin kungiyar kasashen Turai: A 2018, bincike ya nuna shafukan yanar gizon jam’iyyun siyasar Turai sun cusa na’urorin bibiyar dandalin Faebook a cikinsu. Wadannan jam’iyyu sun ratsa Nahiyar Turai da Duniyar siyasa. An kuma bankado hoton bibiyar Facebook a shafukan yanar gizon wasu hukumomin Nahiyar EU. 25 Editan The Nordic Council ya yi bayani, ‘mun kafa na’urar hoton bibiyar Facebook domin bankado karin bayanai masu tasiri a dandalin Facebook daga masu kawo ziyara a shafinmu. 26

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Wani abin kallo kan masu bibiya a shafin yanar gizon jam’iyyar siyasan Birtaniya daga Yunin 2017, bisa ga wani binciken Tactical Tech. Shafin Labour ya zarce kirgen na’urar bibiyan akan shafin Conservative.
Asali: Tactical Tech, 2017.

Ya zan hana a rika bibiya ta?

A ‘yan kwanakin bayan nan, manhajojin hawa yanar gizo sun kawo tsarin da zai bada damar mutum ya hana a rika bibiyarsa; sai dai hakan ba tabbas ba ne domin mai bibiyar mutum zai iya fatali da wannan bukata. Shinge da sababbin tsare-tsaren da manhajojin hawa shafin gizo su ka zo da su sun kara bada kariya. Yayin da kukis su ke da matukar amfani wajen yin wasu ayyukan da ba su shafi toshe mai bibiyar mutum ba, tun 2017, dokokin da ake kawowa su na rage hadarin tsiraicin da masu amfani da manhajojin su ke shiga. Manhajar Safari ta dauki matakin takaita kukis, Firefox kuma ta kara tsarin da ake kira ‘Facebook Container’ wanda ke hana dandalin sadarwa na zamani bibiyar mutum a yanar gizo. 27, 28.

Abin la’akari

↘ Bibiya za ta iya hana mutane ganin talla iri daya na tsawon lokaci.(34)

↘ Kamanta kukis zai iya taimakawa masu yakin neman zabe tsame mutanen da babu ruwansu da harkar siyasa daga ganin tallar siyasa. (35), (36).

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Wannan ballin hoton na nuna cewa kukis na boye, amma kamfanoni irinsu LiveRamp sun saba hulda da masu yakin neman zabe.
Asali: ‘Data Matching with Identity Graph’, LiveRamp, An duba 26 Febrairu 2019.

↘ Bibiya ta na taimakawa wajen binciko damfarar da wasu ke yi ko su sa na’ura ta yi ta hanyar latsa wani adireshi ba tare da sun damu da abin da shafin ya kunsa ba, sai don kawai samu kudi daga shafin, ko kuma tatsar dukiyar da matallatan su ka tara. (37)

↘ Idan aka yi amfani da shi ta hanyar gaskiya da kare sirrin mutane, bibiyar da bare su ke yi daga waje zai iya inganta harkokin siyasa misali aika sakonnin fita filin zabe.

↘ Yawan talla da sakonnin da ake aikawa yanzu ya sa masu zaben da ke da wani ra’ayi su fahimci manufofi da akidun ‘yan takara.

↘ Babu gaskiya kuma karshe a matakan neman izni. Ida nana neman iznin karbar kukis daga bare a wani shafi, masu ziyara ba su da iko game da duk yadda za a yi amfani da bayanan da su ka bada nan gaba, kuma ba za su iya gane inda bayanin na su ya tafi ba. Tsawaita wannan neman izni ya na da tasiri wajen yada bayanai a fagen da ban a siyasa ba, da kuma lokacin da aka aika bayanai zuwa ga ‘yan siyasa. Haka zalika, baran ziyara wurin mutane (misali ace latsa nan domin ka amince da dukkanin kukis a wannan shafin) ba neman izni ba ne. Ana neman izni ne idan aka ba mutum zabi ba wai ya zaba damar shiga cikin shafi ba. (38)

↘ Tallar da mutum ya zaba da kansa ya na ba masu yakin neman zabe damar haska tallar da su ka fi dacewa ga masu kada kuri’a, amma safiyo ya nuna masu zabe ba su so tallar siyasar da su ke gani ya zama wanda ra’ayinsu ya ke so.(39)


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  2. Sasha Issenberg, ‘This Could Have Been the Election When Web-Based Ads Changed Everything. What Happened?’, Slate Magazine, 26 April 2012. (Da yiwuwan wannan ne zaben da tallen yanar gizo ya canza komai. Me ya faru?)
  3. ‘IAB Digital Simplifed Mobile Cookies’, accessed 22 January 2019, https://www.iab.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/IABDigitalSimplifedMobileCookies.pdf.
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  5. Charles Duhigg, ‘Campaigns Mine Personal Lives to Get Out the Vote’, New York Times, 14 October 2012, (Jirgin yakin neman zabe na hakan bayanan mutane domin samun kuri’a) https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/14/us/politics/campaigns-mine-personal-lives-to-get-out-vote.html,accessed 12 March 2019
  6. Jessica Leber, ‘Campaigns to Track Voters with “Political Cookies”’, MIT Technology Review, accessed 16 January 2019, (Tallan bibiyan masu zabe da Kukis, an duba 16 ga Junairu 2019) https://www.technologyreview.com/s/428347/campaigns-to-track-voters-with-political-cookies/.
  7. Leber, ‘Campaign to Track Voters with “Political Cookies”’ , (Tallan bibiyan masu zabe da Kukis,)
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  10. Varoon Bashyakarla, ‘France: Data Violations in Recent Elections’, accessed 26 February 2019, (Faransa: Saba dokokin bayanai a zabukan kusa-kusa, an duba 26 ga Febrairu 2019) https://ourdataourselves.tacticaltech.org/posts/overview-france/.
  11. Simon Hill, ‘The History of Cookies and Their Effect on Privacy’, Digital Trends, 29 March 2015, (Tarihin Kukis da illansu kan sirri) https://www.digitaltrends.com/computing/history-of-cookies-and-effect-on-privacy/.
  12. John Wilander, ‘Intelligent Tracking Prevention’, WebKit (blog), (Hana bibiyanka) 5 June 2017, https://webkit.org/blog/7675/intelligent-tracking-prevention/.
  13. ‘Cookie Central—What Went Wrong?’(Kuki Central – Me ya janyo matsala?), accessed 21 January 2019, http://www.cookiecentral.com/cookie5.htm.
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  16. Rebecca Greenfeld, ‘How Google Will Be Able to Track You without Cookies’, Quartz, accessed 23 January 2019, (Ta yaya Google zasu iya bibiyata ba tare da Kukis ba) https://qz.com/125470/google-cantrack-you-without-cookies/.
  17. ‘What Beacon Technology Can Do for the Election Campaign Marketing?’, accessed 22 January 2019, (Abinda fasahar Bikon za iya yi wajen tallan yakin neman zabe) https://www.techware.co.in/what-beacons-cando-for-your-election-campaign-or-public-political-party-meetings.php.
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  24. Fundacion Karisma, ‘¿Cómo se usaron los datos personales de los colombianos en la pasada campaña legislativa?’, Fundación Karisma (blog), translated from Spanish, 21 August 2018, https://karisma.org.co/como-se-usaron-los-datos-personales-de-los-colombianos-en-la-pasada-campana-legislativa/.
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  26. Treffer, ‘[Investigation] Tory and National Front Websites Hid Facebook Tracking Pixel’.
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  30. Dave Maass, ‘Voter Privacy: What You Need to Know About Your Digital Trail During the 2016 Election’, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 29 February 2016, (Sirrin mai zabe: Abinda ya kamata ka sani game da yadda abubuwan zamani ya gudana lokacin zaben 2016) https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2016/02/voter-privacy-what-you-need-knowabout-your-digital-trail-during-2016-election, accessed 11 March 2019
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  36. Leber, ‘Campaigns to Track Voters with “Political Cookies”’(Jirgin yakin neman zabe zai yi amfani da Kukis wajen bibiyan masu zabe)
  37. ‘Advertising—Privacy & Terms—Google’. ,( Talla, ka’idodji da dokoko – Google)
  38. Lois Beckett, ‘How Microsoft and Yahoo Are Selling Politicians Access To You’, ProPublica, acessed 27 February 2019, (Yadda Microsoft da Yahoo ke sayarwa yansiyasa damar isa ga kai) https://www.propublica.org/article/how-microsoft-and-yahoo-are-selling-politicians-access-to-you.
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