Fasahohi masu tasowa: Abubuwan da zasu jagoranci fasahar yakin neman zabe

Wasu fasahohi ake hasashen tasowarsu nan gaba?

Da dadewa masana harkokin siyasa suna kofan fasahohin yan kasuwa. 1 Kusan dukkan hanyoyin inganta fasahar da mukayi bayani a wannan takarda ya fito ne daga wajen yan kasuwa kafin shigowarsu siyasa.

Duk da cewa hasashen yadda rana gobe yakin neman zabe zai kasance na da wuya, yan kasuwa da masu bincike da gwaje-gwajen fasaha na bada wasu alaman yadda abubuwa zasu kasance gobe. 2

Wannan babi zai yi magana ne kan fasahohi masu tasowa da zasuyi amfani da bayanan mutane wajen cimma wata manufa na siyasa.

Mutum-mutumi

Amfani da mutum-mutumi da fasahar farfaganda wajen tasiri a siyasa, kamar #hashtags a Tuwita, ya kasance abinda ake amfani sosai kuma ana cigaba da gudanar da bincike kai. 3,4,5

Tasowar mutum-mutumin tare da amfani da bayanan mutum ka iya kai ga daidaita ire-iren wannan abun.

Kamar yadda wani mai bincike yayi gargadi, ‘Cikin shekaru kadan masu zuwa, mutum-mutumin hira zasu iya kiran wasu mutane kuma su fara tattaunawa da su a boye.’

Za suyi amfani da abubuwan da kuka tattauna wajen binciken bayananka domin turo maka kawataccen farfaganda. 6

Mutum-mutumin zasu iya ingiza mutum zuwa wuce gona da iri da kuma kawo masa hujjoji tamkar da dan Adam kake magana.

Yan siyasa na son mutum-mutumin don dalilai masu yawa: Suna taimakawa masu yakin neman zabe wajen bada amsa ga masu tambaya da kwarewa, suna taimakawa wajen zaben irin labarin da mutum ke so, ba sa kuskure kamar mutum, babu inda ba sa iya aiki, kuma suna iya hira da mutum kai tsaye. 7,8

Kuma suna da rahusan gaske: A Afrilun 2016, ‘Facebook ya bude manhajar tura sakonninsa ga masu kera mutum-mutumi,’ wanda ya fi tura sakonnin waya mai rahusa da kuma samun iya amfani da bayanan Facebook wajen sanin wadanda kake son isarwa sakon kamfen. 9,10

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Ballin hoto daga @mssg, wani kamfanin dake bada mutum-mutumin tura sakonni domin sanya mutane rijistan zabe da kuma sanyasu fita zabe.
Asali: https://www.atmssg.Com/Vote, An duba 28 Febrairu 2019.

Masu yakin neman zabe sun kosa su fara amfani da mutum-mutumi saboda bayanan mutane da suke iya tarawa.

Mutum-mutumin hira zai iya bukatar mutane su zabu wani abu ko su amsa wasu tambayoyi. Ta haka, mutum-mutumin zai hada runbun bayanai da zai yi kiyasi kan abubuwan da mutanen ke so, shawarinsu, da shakkunsu’. Wani masanin ilmin sadarwa ya bayyana. 11

A wasu lokutan kuma, mutmum-mutumin na gudanar da zaben wasa a yanar gizo domin ganin yadda mutane zasu kada kuri’a kuma ya tattara bayanai ta haka.

Mutum-mutumin hira sun yawaita saboda za’a iya amfani da su wajen tattaunawa na yau da kullum, ba su bukatar wani wahala ko tunani.

Daga tsokaci kan wani labari kadai, za’a iya kwadaitar da mai zabe ya amsa wasu tambayoyi, ya kada kuri’a, ya bada gudunmuwar kudi da sauransu, dukkan ta mutum-mutumi. Har yanzu da kananan mutum-mutumi ake amfani a yakin neman zabe.

Wani sabon kamfani a kasar Faransa, misali, ya gina wani mutum-mutumi da zai iya martani ga duk wani sakon aka tura kan kalaman Donald Trump 100 (kuma mutane sun tattauna da mutum-mutumin). 12

Wani mutum-mutumi mai suna ‘Dein Selfe mit Van der Bellen’ (Kai da Alexander Van der Bellen [shugaban kasan Austria, lokacin yana dan takara]) ya taimakawa mutane wajen sanya hotunan Van der Ballen matsayin nasu a Facebook. 13

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Mujallar Chatbots, wani kamfani ya wallada labara mai take ‘Mutum-mutumi sun fi mashinan labaran bogi’
Asali: ‘Bots Are More Than “Fake News” Machines’, Chatbots Magazine, 23 Febrairu 2017.

Ana kyautata zaton mutum-mutumin hirar siyasan gobe za su fi kasancewa masu rudarwa, musamman yayinda suke tara Karin bayanan mutane.

Ana kyautata zaton masu kamfen za suyi amfani da irin fasahohi da kayan cigaban da su Google, Microsoft da Amazon ke amfani wajen mayar –mutumi tamkar dan Adam. 14

Adam Meldrum, wani dan kasuwa kuma kwararre wajen amfani da mutum-mutumi a yakin neman zabe, yana son amfani da mutum-mutumin hira domin samar da wani abotan gaske da masu zabe. 15

Wannan manufa nasa, kamar wasu daya, shine mutum-mutumin hira su fara magana kamar yadda dan Adam ke yi; hakan na nufin cewa idan aka ingantashi sosai, mutum-mutumi zai iya shirya yakin neman zabe, sabanin wanda ake yi yanzu wanda kawai tamkar tallan haja ne. 16,17

Hakazalika, masu bincike a dakin binciken MIT suna kokarin gian mutum-mutumin da zai rika bada amsa kaman dan Adam.

A fannin siyasa kuwa, amfani da mutum-mutumin da ya san ra’ayoyin dan takara kan al’ummaran muhawara daban-daban zai iya taimakawa masu zabe wajen mika tambayoyin da suka shafi yankunansu kuma su samu amsoshi. 18

Hikimar gudanar da wannan bincike shine sani shin fasahar zamaninmu zai iya bayyana isassun bayanan kan tunaninmu, abubuwan da muke so, da dabi’unmu har da mutum-mutumi zai iya kwafan abinda mukayi daidai. 19

Idan ko hakan na yiwuwa, masu yakin neman zabe zasu yi amfani da shi wajen tasiri kan ra’ayoyin mutanen da sukayi tunanin na goyon bayan dan takaransu. 20,21

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Ballin hoton mutum-mutumin tura sakonnin jam’iyyar Labour na Birtaniya, karkashin jagorancin kamfanin Chatfuel, dake zaune a San Francisco. Cahfuel na alfaharin cewa tana da mutane sama da biyan 1 a manhajar Facebook Messenger.
Asali: ‘The Labour Party Chatbot’, An duba 28 Febrairu 2019.

Bibiyan motsin ido

Wasu masu kamfen siyasa sun fara canza salon tallansu zuwa binciken bibiyan idanuwa. A wannan bincike, wasu mutane sun bada izinin lura da daukan motsin idanuwasu, ko a cikin dakin bincike ko gida.

Wani labari daga Discida, wani kamfani dake gudanar da aikin bibiyan motsin ido wa masu yakin neman zabe ya yi ta’arifin harkar inda yace: Bibiyan motsin ido wani dabara ne da yayi fice inda kake samun ganin abinda mutum ya gani, da kuma irin mayar da hankalin da yayi kana bun.

Idan mai zabe ya ki kallon wasu hotuna ko sakonni, toh wannan fasahar ba za tayi aiki ba.

Abinda dabarar bibiyan motsin ido ya fi sauran dabarun shine mutum zai bada amsa nan take.

Sabanin zuwa wajen mutane kana musu tambayoyi sun baka amsa, wannan fasahar ba ta bukatar ka tuna abinda ka kalla, kuma babu wanda zai bukaci ka amsa wani tambaya.

Bibiyan motsin ido na bada labarai cikin yan dakikain farko - Inda ka kalla da inda z aka kalla bayan haka. Ina masu zabe suka fi dadewa? 22

Wannan fasahar na baiwa jam’iyyun siyasa ko yan takara daman tsara tallarsu zuwa masu zabe don cimma babban manufa.

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Ballin hoton tallan yakin neman zabe da aka inganta ta hanyar amfani da fasahar bibiyar idanuwa da kamfanin Axiom Strategies dake zaune a Kansa tayi. Taswirar na nuna inda aka janyo idanuwa mutanen.
Asali: ‘Direct Mail – Axiom Strategies’, An duba 18Febrairu 2019.

Masu bincike a jami’ar Vienna sun tura wani talla daga jam’iyyar Austrian Green Party da jam’iyyar Austrian Freedom Party zuwa masu zaben jam’iyyun biyu a lokaci guda domin lura da motsin idanuwansu.

Sakamakon Binciken ya nuna cewa mutane sun fi bata lokaci wajen kallon tallar da ke da alaka da jam’iyyar da suke goyon baya.

Duk da cewa za a gama kaman wannan abu mai saukin fahimta ne, masu kamfen zasu iya amfani da shi wajen janyo hankali masu zabe ta hanyar tura musu tallan siyasa.

Sakamakon hakan, aikin bibiyan motsin ido zai girma kuma masu amfani da shi zasu yawaita. 23

Kafafen fasahar amfani da mutum-mutumi

Canje-canje a fasaha ya haifar da hanyoyi daban-daban na fahimtar masu zabe cikin sauri da daidaici.

Yan kasuwa na fadada bincike cikin fannin kafafen fasahar amfani da mutum-mutumi wajen aika kan kwakwalwa domin fahimtar yadda kafafen labarai da sada zumunta ke shafan yadda mutum ke tuna abu, jin tausayi da mayar da hankali. 24

Wani jawabin shafin akwatin gidan waya na kasar Amurka mai taken ‘Amfanin fasahar duba kwakwalwa ga masu yakin neman zabe’ shine ya nuna cewa binciken binciken an fi tunawa da tallace-tallacen dake dauke da hotuna fiye da wadanda rubutu ne kawai.

Rubutun shafin ya kara da cewa masu zabe za sufi saurin tunawa da sakon masu yakin neman zabe ta da ke tura wasikun takarda kan manufofin wani dan takarar, fiye wadanda ke amfani da kafafen zamani.

Idan aka kwatanta da kafafen sadarwan zamani, tura sakonnin wasikun hannun sun fi jan hankulan mutane da kashi 39%.25

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An dauki wannan hoton ne daga shafin DeliverTheWin.com, wanda ma’aikatar akwatunan sakon Amurka ta samar.
Asali: ‘What Neuromarketing Means for Political Campaigns – USPS Deliver the Win’, An duba 18 Febrairu 2019.

Yanar gizon abubuwa

Yawan adadin bayanan da masu yakin neman zabe ke da shi wajibi ne ya karu sosai saboda an yi kiyasin cewa adadin na’urorin sadarwa zai zarce bilyan 30 a fadin duniya a shekarar 2020 kuma masu kamfen sun daura damaran kwasan bayanan mutane yadda suka ka dama ta akwatunan talabijin, da kafafen sada zumunta. 26,27

A nan gaba, akwatunan amsa kuwa irinsu Amazon Echo, Google Home, robotic vacuums, da smart beds zasu rika daukan bayanan dabi’un mutane. 28

Yanzu masu kamfen basu bukatar sanin ko wasu yan gida na kula da lamuran tsaro, kawai zasu samun amsar haka ta kararrawan neman dauki dake gidajen zai basu amsar.

Wani dan jarida ya tsinkayi cewa ‘na gaba yanar gizo zai canza yadda mutane zasu rika daukan gwamnati da kuma yadda gwamnati za ta rika inganta rayuwanmu ta wasu na’urorin da ko kadan basu hutu. 29,30

Saboda kayan wutan da muke da su a gida, bayananmu da za’a rika kwasa zai fi wanda ake kwasa a yanzu. 31

A karshe, wannan cigaban zai karawa masu yakin neman zabe karfin gwiwan saitan masu zabe cikin sauki da kwarewa.

Wasu misalai

A kasar Amurka: A Nuwamban 2016, wasu kungiyoyin siyasa uku; kwamitin yakin neman zaben jam’iyyar Democratic jihar Conneticut, kwamitin yan siyasa a jihar Pennsylvania da Bazta Arpaio a jihar Arizona, sun dauki mutum-mutumin Facebook Messenger da @mssg ta samar aikin fitar da Sheriff Joe Arpaio (da ake zargi da laifin wariya) daga ofishinsa.

Mutum-mutumin ya bukaci masu zabe adireshinsu. Duk da cewa akwai shafukan yanar gizo da dama da mutane zasu duba runfunan zabensu, mutum-mutumin @mssg ya yi musu fice wajen baiwa mutane daman dubawa cikin sauki a wayoyin hannunsu.

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Kamfanin @mssg na samar da mutum-mutumin tura sakonni ga abokan harkallansu ta manhajar Facebook Messenger. A nan, mutum-mutumin @mssg na tambayan mutum ya bayar da adireshinsa kuma ya mutum-mutumin ya tura masa rumfar zabensa. Masu yakin neman zabe uku a AMurka sun yi amfani da shi a Nuwamban 2016 a Amurka.
Asali: ‘Case Study: Election Day Facebook Messenger Bot’, @mssg, 14 Febrairu 2017.

An kwatanta ingancin mutum-mutumin @mssg da shafin yanar gizo.

Kamar yadda, Beth Becker, wanda yake jagorantan kamfanin taimakawa yan fafutuka wajen nema musu mabiya ya ce: “karban bayanai a hira sabon abu ne, kuma sakamakon farko-farko da ake samu na da gwanin ban sha’awa.

Za mu iya karban kowani irin bayani daga wurin mutane – adireshin gida, adireshin akwatin email, lambobin waya, ranar haihuwa, dss. 32

Kuma yanzu Facebook ta bada dama mutane na iya turawa juna kudi ta Messenger, nan ba da dadewa ba kungiyoyi za su fara karban gudunmuwa kaman haka.”

A kasar Canada: Watanni kafin zaben kasar a 2015, kamfanin auna kokarin yan kasuwa, Mediative ya tattara mata biyar da maza biya kuma yayi amfani da fasahar bibiyan motsin ido wajen taba tunanin mutane domin fahimtar wani sashen shafin yanar gizon masu yakin neman zabe ya ja hankalin mutanen.

An yi amfani da shafukan yanar gizon manyan jam’iyyun siyasan kasar Canada kuma an samu sakamakon cewa maza sun fi bata lokaci wajen kallon tambarin jam’iyyun yayinda mata suka mayar da hankali wajen kallon hotunan iyali.

Wasu shafukan sun fi wasu kayatar da ido, kuma hakan na nufin akwai bukatar gyara.

Jawabin ya kare da cewa, ‘bisa da binciken da muka gudanar, da alamun cewa mata sun fi son Justin Trudeau; maza sun fi son jam’iyyar Conservative. Yayinda masu son jam’iyyar NPD basu nan, basu can, da yiwuwan mata za su fi son jam’iyyar Green Party.’ 33

Duk da cewa wasu zasu nuna rashin amincewarsu da sihhancin sakamakon binciken bibiyan motsin idon nan, ya nuna yadda ake amfani da bayanan mutane wajen yakin neman zabe.

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Wani bayanin da kamfainn talla, Mediative yayi a shafin yakin neman zaben yar takarar majalisa a 2015 a kasar Canada, Elisabeth Mayu, wanda ke nuna yadda maza da mata ke alaka da sakonni. Kamar yadda zanen ke nunawa, mata sun fi kwashe lokaci wajen kallon rubutun dake kasa ta hannun hagu. Maza kuwa, sun fi Mayuar da hankali kan tambarin jam’iyyar Green.
Asali: ‘5 Eye-Tracking Heat Maps Reveal Where Canadians Look When Reviewing Parties’ Websites during the Federal Election’, Mediative (blog), 15 Oktoba 2015.

Ta yaya zan sani idan ana amfani da shi a kaina

Yayinda yawancin fasahohin da muka yi bayani a nan basu yawaita a gari ba, da yiwuwan zasu shahara.

Idan mutum-mutumin hira ya samu nasarar tattaunawa da masu zabe, za a yi wuyan banbantashi da mutanen gaske.

Bayan hakan, da alamun babu yadda za a sani ko ana amfani da fasahar bibiyan motsin ido kan tallace-tallacen da kake kallo a yanar gizo da niyyar juya ra’ayinka zuwa wani sako ko hoto.

Kawai don akwai wadannan fasahohin ba ya nuni ga cewa an amfani da dukkan na’urorin da ke gidanka wajen tattara bayanka don amfanin siyasa, duk da cewa akwai wadanda suka kosa suyi amfani kayan wutan gida wajen yada manuar siyasa.

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Ballin hoto daga shafin IQM, wani kamfani dake New York. A nan, suna tallan bayanan masu zabe, inda suke, domin aika musu sakonnin da ya kamata.
Asali: ‘IQM - Solutions - Political’, An duba 28 Febrairu 2019.

Abubuwan la’akari

↘ Idan akayi amfani da shi cikin gaskiya kuma a bayyane, mutum-mutumin hira zai iya tattaunawa da mutane wajen amsa tambayoyi da bukatun masu zabe. Misali, mai zabe zai iya tattaunawa da mutum-mutumin kan tasirin kudirorin dan takara kan kasuwancinsu.

↘ Mutum-mutumi kan kiyaye irin kura-kuran da dan Adam ke yi kan abubuwa masu sauki irinsu duba rumfunan zabe don bada adireshi

↘ Yan siyasa marasa niyya mai kyau zasu iya amfani da bayanan mutane wajen tura sakonnin farfaganda da ra’ayoyin rikau. Tuni an samu mutum-mutumi marasa bayanan mutane da iya hakan. 34

↘ Za’a iya gina Manyan mutum-mutumi domin kwaikwayon muryan yan takara da yayata ra’ayoyinsu. Yayin haka, masu zabe ba zasu san cewa da mutum-mutum ko dan Adam suke magana ba.

↘ Na’urorin yanar gizo na gina wata duniya mai hadari na bibiyan abinda mutane ke yi a yanar gizo domin hangen siyasa. Wani malamin jami’a yace ‘Sanya yanar gizo kan abubuwa babban hanyar kwakwaf ne.’ 35,36

↘ Idan aka hada wadannan dabaru, irinsu mutum-mutumi da haran daidaikun mutane, kalubalen fahimtar abinda ke gudana a duniya bayanai zai karu kan mutane kuma aikin masu lura zai kara zama wahala.


  1. Jeff Chester and Kathryn C. Montgomery, ‘The Influence Industry: Contemporary Digital Politics in the United States’, accessed 28 February 2019, (Dinuyar Tasiri: Siyasar Zamani dake ci a kasar Amurka’, an duba ranar 28 ga Febrairu 2019) https://ourdataourselves.tacticaltech.org/media/ttc-influence-industry-usa.pdf.
  2. Rose Acton, ‘The Hyper-Personalised Future of Political Campaigning’, CapX, 12 July 2018, (Yadda aka sauya rana goben yakin neman zabe) https://capx.co/the-hyper-personalised-future-of-politicalcampaigning/.
  3. Issie Lapowsky, ‘Here’s How Much Bots Drive Conversation During News Events’, Wired, 30 October 2018, (Ga yadda Bots ke tafiyar da tattaunawa yayinda labarai) https://www.wired.com/story/new-tool-shows-howbots-drive-conversation-for-news-events/.
  4. Jamie Susskind, ‘Opinion | Chatbots Are a Danger to Democracy’, The New York Times, 4 December 2018, sec. Opinion, (Mutum-mutumin hira na da hadari ga Demokradiyya) https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/04/opinion/chatbots-ai-democracy-free-speech.html.
  5. Fabio Chiusi and Claudio Agosti, ‘The Influence Industry: Personal Data and Political Influence in Italy’, accessed 28 February 2019, (Bayanan mutane da tasirin siyasa a Italiya, an duba ranar 28 ga Febrairu 2019) https://ourdataourselves.tacticaltech.org/media/ttc-influence-industry-italy.pdf.
  6. Lisa-Maria Neudert, ‘Future Elections May Be Swayed by Intelligent, Weaponized Chatbots’, MIT Technology Review, accessed 4 February 2019, (Za a iya juya zabukan gobe ta hanyar amfani da mutum-mutumin hira mai basiran gaske, an duba 4 ga Febrairu 2019) https://www.technologyreview.com/s/611832/future-elections-may-be-swayed-byintelligent-weaponized-chatbots/.119
  7. Vyacheslav Polonski, ‘How Artifcial Intelligence Conquered Democracy’, The Conversation, accessed 22 January 2019, (Yadda ilimin zamani ya kayar da Demokradiyya’, tattaunawar, an duba 22 ga Junairu 2019) http://theconversation.com/howartifcial-intelligence-conquered-democracy-77675.
  8. Alex Boedigheimer, ‘5 Reasons Why Your Political Campaign Should Use Chatbots’, IMGE, 9 September 2018, (Dalilai 5 da ya kamata jirgin yakin neman zabe yayi amfani da mutum-mutumin hira) https://imge.com/news/5-reasons-why-your-politicalcampaign-should-use-chatbots/.
  9. Deepak Puri, ‘How to Make Fake Friends and Influence People Politically with Botnets’, CIO, 6 April 2017, (Yadda zaka yi abokan karya da kuma tasiri kan siyasar mutane ta hanyar amfani da Botnets) ://www.cio.com/article/3188011/election-hacking/how-tomake-fake-friends-and-influence-people-politically-with-botnets.html.
  10. Nancy Scola, ‘How Chatbots Are Colonizing Politics’, POLITICO, accessed 22 January 2019, (Yadda mutum-mutumin hira ke yiwa siyasa mulkin mallaka, an duba 22 ga Junairu 2019) https://www.politico.com/story/2016/10/chatbots-are-invadingpolitics-229598.
  11. Irene Del Carmen Pérez-Merbis, ‘Bots Are More Than “Fake News” Machines’, Chatbots Magazine, 23 February 2017, (Bots sun fi mashinan labaran Bogi yawa) https://chatbotsmagazine.com/bots-arenot-per-se-fake-news-machines-c62a2fb6f571.
  12. Thomas Maître, ‘Donald Trump Chatbot Experiment’, Chatbots Magazine, 8 November 2016, (Gwajin mutum-mutumin hiran Donald Trump) https://chatbotsmagazine.com/donald-trump-chatbotexperiment-f027b9a1caea.
  13. Del Carmen Pérez-Merbis, ‘Bots Are More Than “Fake News” Machines’ (Bots sun fi mashinan labaran Bogi yawa).
  14. Neudert, ‘Future Elections May Be Swayed by Intelligent, Weaponized Chatbots’. (Bots sun fi labaran Bogi yawa)
  15. Nick Fouriezos, ‘Meet the GOP’s Chatbot and Artifcial Intelligence Guru’, OZY, accessed 14 February 2019, (Ga masanin mutum-mutumin hiran GOP, an duba 14 ga Febrairu 2019) http://www.ozy.com/rising-stars/the-gops-chatbotand-artifcial-intelligence-guru/92254.
  16. Scola, ‘How Chatbots Are Colonizing Politics’. (Yadda mutum-mutumin hira ke yiwa siyasa mulkin mallaka)
  17. Fouriezos, ‘Meet the GOP’s Chatbot and Artifcial Intelligence Guru’. , (Ga masanin mutum-mutumin hiran GOP)
  18. Neil Hughes, ‘Personalized Politician Chat Bots Predicted to Be next Big Thing Targeting Voters’, One World Identity (blog), accessed 06 March 2019, (Mutum-mutumin hirar yan siyasa zai zama abu na gaba mafi girma da zai rika kaiwa masu zabe hari, an duba 6 ga Maris 2019) https://oneworldidentity.com/personalized-politician-chat-bots-predicted-next-big-thingtargeting-voters/.
  19. Neil Hughes, ‘Researchers Seek to Mimic Digital Identities by Analyzing Email, Online Interactions’, One World Identity (blog), accessed 12 February 2019, (Masu bincike na kokarin kwafan abubuwa ta hanyar binciken akwatin Email da tattaunawar yanar gizo, an duba ranar 12 ga Febrairu 2019) https://oneworldidentity.com/researchers-seek-mimic-digital-identities-analyzing-emailonline-interactions/.
  20. Hughes, ‘Researchers Seek to Mimic Digital Identities by Analyzing Email, Online Interactions’. (Masu bincike na kokarin kwafan abubuwa ta hanyar binciken akwatin Email da tattaunawar yanar gizo)
  21. Hughes, ‘Personalized Politician Chat Bots Predicted to Be next Big Thing Targeting Voters’. (Mutum-mutumin hirar yan siyasa zai zama abu na gaba mafi girma da zai rika kaiwa masu zabe hari)
  22. ‘The Eyes Have It | More Effective Political Ads – Discida’, accessed 17 January 2019, https://www.discida.com/2014/09/more-effective-political-ads/.
  23. Hicham Damahi, ‘5 Eye-Tracking Heat Maps Reveal Where Canadians Look When Reviewing Parties’ Websites during the Federal Election’, Mediative (blog), 15 October 2015, (Taswira mai bibiyan motsin udo na bayyana idan yan kasar Canada suke kallo yayinda suka duba shafin yanar gizon jam’iyyu a zaben kasa) http://www.mediative.com/5-eye-tracking-heat-maps-revealwhere-canadians-look-when-reviewing-parties-websites-during-the-federalelection/.
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