Menene Kundin masu zabe?

Kundin masu zabe wasu bayanai ne game da masu kada kuri’a da ake tattarawa a cikin rumbun bayanai domin harkar yakin neman zabe. A tsurarsa, wannan kundi jeri ne na mutanen da za su iya kada kuri’arsu a zabe. Ana iya hada wannan bayani da wasu karin bayanai kamar ra’ayin siyasa ko tarihin rajistar mutum. Nauyin kundin nan ya danganta ne daga wanda ya hada shi – Ma’aikatan zabe, ‘yan kasuwa, ko jam’iyyun siyasa – Su kan dauki bayanai da za a iya samu a fili, dauke da wasu karin bayanai da za a samu daga waje da kuma rumfar zabe. Yayin da gwamnati ta ke amfani da wannan kundi wajen tanntance wadanda za su iya yin zabe. Su kuma jam’iyyun siyasa – da hadin-kan dilallai da masu bincike su na amfani da wannan bayani ne wajen tsara yadda za a lashe zabe. Kundin zabe ya na kunshe da abin da zai taimaka wajen lissafin wadanda za su ba ‘dan takara ko wata tafiya goyon baya, tare da taimakawa wajen gane mabiya da jemagun siyasa da ba su tsaida wanda za su zaba ba. Darajar kundin zabe ya karu sosai saboda cigaba da aka samu wajen tattaro, bincike da amfani da tarin bayanan mutane da aka samu. A shekarun bayan nan da su ka shude, kundin zabe ya amfana da bayanan mutane daga kasuwanni, kuma an inganta kundin da karin bayanai – fiye da tsurar bayanan da aka saba samu wajen zabe. Wadannan karin bayanai da ake samu sun bunkasa yakin neman zabe ta hanyar fahimtar inda da yadda kuri’un mutane su ke tafiya a zabe. Za a iya amfani da karin bayanai dadin-dadawa wajen kirkirar shafukan mutane, wadanda su ke da amfani kwarai wajen hasashen zabe. Wannan ya hada da bibiyar yadda mai kada kuri’a ya saba fita filin zabe da jam’iyyar da ya ke goyon baya domin karkatar da tunaninsa da kuma duba bayanin cefanensa domin binciko karfin tattalin arzikinsa. Wadannan karin bayanai su kan taimaka har wa yau wajen shirya irin sakonnin da za a aikowa mai zabe.

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Wannan ballin hoton daga GitHub dake nuna bayanan rijistan zaben Amurka.
Asali: https://github.com/pablobarbera/voter-files/blob/master/README.md, An duba 11 Maris 2019.

Domin bayyana irin datsan-datsan din bayanan da dillalan kundi su ka bada, kamfanin HaystaqDNA da ke kasar Amurka ya na da wani sahun bayanai da ya zama dole su mallaka a kan kowane mai zabe. Wannan ya kunshi batutuwan da ake ji da su kamar amincewar da aka yi wa shugaban kasa da tsare-tsaren gudun hijira, goyon baya ga kungiyoyin fafatuka kamar masu goyon bayan bakaken fata, da sauran dabi’ar mai zabe. Ra’ayin masu zabe ya tashi daga hannun jam’iyyun siyasa, ya koma hannun dilallai da masu bincike, wanda da-dama daga cikinsu sun kware wajen binciken bayanan siyasa. Alal misali kamfanin dillacin NationBuilder su kan bada kundin bayanan mutane miliyan 190 masu zabe a Amurka; dauke da lambar wayarsu, akwatin email, da tarihin zabe, wanda aka fansa daga hannun gwamnati a kan kudi masu kauri, kafin kamfanin su gyara wannan bayanai da su ka samu. Su na ikirarin wannan kwaskwarima da su ke yi wa bayanan, ya na ba su cikakkiyar damar bin diddikin tafiyar masu kada kuri’a a kowane irin zabe, daga wasan kwallon kafa zuwa majalisa.

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Ballin hoto daga shafin yanar gizon kamfanin tara bayani HaystaqDNA, dake nuna misalin bayanan siyasa kan masu zabe.
Asali: https://haystaqdna.com/politicalhq/, An duba 19 Febrairu 2019.

Ina su ke samun bayanan?

Jam’iyyu za su iya gina kundinsu daga manyan wurare hudu: Rajistar masu zabe, ‘yar tinke, binciken ra’ayin jama’a, safiyo, rajistar ‘ya ‘yan jam’iyya, bayanai daga yanar gizo, ko kamfanonin dillanci.

Kundin Rajistar masu zabe: Za a iya tattara wannan bayanai daga rajistar zabe da jami’in hukumar zabe na gunduma ya adana a matsayin takardar wadanda su ke damar kada kuri’a. Misali, a Birtaniya, ma’aikacin hukumar zabe ya kan ajiye rajista biyu a gunduma: rajistar hukuma da ta jama’a. Malaman zabe, jam’iyyun siyasa, ‘yan takara da masu rike da mukamai su na da ikon duba rajistar zaben hukuma. Kafin zabe ko kiranye, ana aika rajistar ga masu yakin neman zabe domin su fito da sakon zabe. Rajistar jama’a kuma ita ce wanda gama-garin mutane, kamfani ko kungiya za su iya fansa kamar yadda su ka so. Ana fitar da makamancin wannan bayani a kasashe da-dama, wanda ya dangata da dokokin kare hakkin bayanan kasashen.

Zabukan yanar gizo da safiyo: Ana iya tattara irin wannan bayanan ne ta hanyar bincike ko safiyo, misali daga zabukan wasa na yanar gizo masu sauki ko manhajojin siyasa, zuwa hanyoyi masu wuya irin kira a waya ko bi gida-gida ana tambayoyi. Kulli yaumin, tuntunbar masu zabe ta wayoyin salula na dogaro ne kan fasahohi irinsu ‘kira da na’urar mutum-mutumi’ watau robocalling. Yan sa kai masu taimakawa da bincike zasu bi jerin umurnin da aka basu inda zasu yiwa mutane tambayoyi kan jam’iyyun siyasar da suke kauna, ko kuma idan lokacin zaben raba gardama kan wani lamari ne, za su musu tambaya kan ra’ayoyinsu, misalin dokar hallata ko haramta ganyen Wiwi. Bayan haka za’a katabta amsoshinsu, wani zubin da manhajoji. Hakazalika za’a iya samun wasu bayanai yayin tattaunawa lokacin tambayoyin kan yiwuwan canza musu ra’ayi.

Dillalan bayanai: Dillalan bayanai kan karbi bayanan zaben mutane kuma su samar da wani kundin tarihin mai zabe ta hanyoyi masu yawa, irinsu runbun hukumar zabe da aka ambata a baya, safiyo da kuma bayanai a kasuwa. Dillalan bayanai na yawan yiwa jam’iyyun siyasa aiki, irin sama musu manhajar na’urar kwamfyuta domin kula da runbunsu, wanda aka fi sani da CRM. Ban da daukar bayanan mutane domin amfani lokutan yakin neman zaben, manhajar NationBuilder na iya tabbatar da cewa runbun na da isassasun bayani akai-akai kuma yana iya inganta bayanan mai zabe da karin bayani irinsu adadin kudin da ya mallaka ko abubuwan da yake sha’awa. Wata manhajar L2, na bada bayanai kamar sana’ar mutum, yarensa da ra’ayoyinsa kan lamuran siyasa a Amurka misali auren jinsi ko dokokin hana rike bindiga.

Rijistan zama dan jam’iyyar siyasa: A kasashe da dama, jam’iyyun siyasa na adana rijistan mambobinsu. Bayan adireshi da lambobin waya, abubuwa da rijistar ta kunsa kan hada da tsawon shekarun da mutum yayi a jam’iyyar, salon yadda yake zabe a zabukan cikin gida na shugabannin jam’iyyar, tarihin ayyukan sa kai da yake yiwa jam’iyyar da kuma gudunmuwar kudi da yake badawa. Jam’iyyu kan iya amfani da manhajojin fasaha daban-daban wajen samun tattaunawa da mambobinsu da niyyar samun bayanai kansu, wani lokacin har da amfani da manhajoji ko zabukan wasa na yanar gizo. A wasu kasashe irinsu Kenya, wajibi ne a nunawa gwamnati wadannan bayanai, yayinda kasashe irinsu Birtaniya, jam’iyyar na da zabi idan tana son wallafa bayanan ko bata so.

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Ballin hoto daga kamfanin L2, wanda ke nuna abubuwan inganta runbun bayani wanda ya hada da irin rayuwar mutum da ra’ayoyinsa kan lamuran siyasa.
Asali: https://www.l2political.com/products/data/voter-file-enhancements/, An duba 11 Maris 2019.

Wasu misalai

A kasar Chile: Rijistan Zabe a kasar Chile na nan a fili a yanar gizo a tsarin PDF bayan da hukumar zaben kasar ta alanta cewa wajibi ne a bayyana. Runbun ya kunshi labaran dukkan yan kasar Chile da suka zarce shekaru 17 da haihuwa. Bisa ka’idojin rijistan zabe, bayanan sun hada da sunaye, lambar zabe, jinsi da adireshi. Duk da cewa dokoki sun haramta sayar da wadannan bayanai, akwai togaciya. Wasu sun bayyana ra’ayoyinsu kan illar da bayyana wannan rijistan zaben ke iya yi ga sirrukan mutane saboda rashin tsaro da kuma irin yadda za’a iya kwafan runbun, a yi wata irinta cikin sauki. Bugu da kari, an dade ba’a dabbaka dokokin kare sirrukan mutum na kasar Chile a wasu bangarori. Kowace irin kungiyar yakin neman zabe za ta iya amfani da bayanan a matsayin kundin masu zabe.

A kasar Kenya: Akwai hanyoyi daban-daban da jam’iyyun siyasa da yan takara ke iya amfani da shi wajen samar da kundin masu zabe. A shekarar 2017, hukumar zabe mai zaman kanta ta kasar Kenya IEBC ta gudanar da rijistan masu zabe. An bukaci masu zabe su gabatar da katin zama dan kasa, sawun yatsa, kuma a dauki hotunansu a rumfar zabe. An bayyana wadanda aka yiwa rijista inda aka ajiye takardar rijistan a tsakiyar kowani rumfar zabe. Idan wani dan takara na bukatar bayanai tun da wuri, zai iya biyan kudi a bashi. Hakan zai iya taimaka masa musamman lokacin aka yi jinkirin watanni kafin wallafa takardar, kuma lokacin da aka wallafa daga karshe, an samu takardar cike da kura-kurai.

A kasar Canada: An togaciye jam’iyyun siyasa daga dokokin kare sirri. Saboda haka, kowace jam’iyya na iya ajiye kundin masu zabe ba tare da bukatar bin dokokin da ke hana yan kasuwa ajiye bayanan mutane ba. Ta hanyar fadada bayanan da suke da shi da kuma samun tabbacin masu son su, jam’iyyun siyasa na kasa masu zabe kashi uku: masu goyon bayansu, marasa goyon bayansu da marasa ra’ayi tukun. Misali, jam’iyyar Conservative ta kasar Canada ta yi amfani da wadannan bayanai a ma’aunin -15 zuwa +15 domin sanin irin goyon bayan da kowani mutum ke mata, yayinda jam’iyyar Liberal ta daura na ta kan ma’aunin 1 (Masu goyon bayansu) zuwa 10 (Masu matsanancin adawa). A kasa irin wannan da babu doka, ba a iya sanin takammaman abinda runbun bayanan ya kunsa da kuma yadda ake gane sakamakon don sanin masu goyon bayansu da marasa goyon bayansu.

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Ballin hoto daga jam’iyyar Conservative na kasar Kanada dake nuna goyon bayan mai zabe daga maras goyon baya (-15) zuwa mai goyon (+15).
Asali: https://ourdataourselves.tacticaltech.org/media/ttc-influence-industry-canada.pdf, An duba 7 Maris 2019.

A kasar Birtaniya: Kowace jam’iyya a kasar Birtaniya na da nata kundin masu zabe, saboda haka akwai banbanci matuka dangane da irin arzikin kudi da makaman aiki da kowace jam’iyya ta mallaka. Jam’iyyar Labour na da manhajar na’urar kwanfyuta na cikin gida mai suna ContactCreator, wacce ke kunshe da bayanai kan abubuwan da mutum ke so, tarihin zabukan da yayi, da kuma arzikin da ya mallaka. Manhajar Contact Creator na ajiye bayanin da aka karba daya wayar salula, akwatin sakon email ko bayanan binciken gida-gida.Jam’iyyar Liberal Democrats kuwa na da runbun bayani mai suna ‘Connect’ wacce kamfanin NGP VAN ya hada, hakazalika kamfanin ya kera wa jam’iyyar Democrats a Amurka na ta runbun bayanan. A bangare guda, an samu yan takara da jam’iyyun siyasan da ke da karancin arziki, suna amfani da matattarar bayani da suke kerawa da kansu a manhajar ‘Excel’.

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Ballin hoton runbun bayanan jam’iyyar Labour a Birtaniya mai nuna damar sanya bayanin da aka samu daga yakin neman zabe da daidaikun mutane.
Asali: The Labour Party. ‘Contact Creator, The Essentials’, 2017, An duba 11 Maris 2019.

Ta yaya zan gane akwai bayanai na cikin kundin masu zabe?

Akwai matukar wuya ka gane yadda masu ruwa da tsaki ke rarraba bayananka tsakaninsu. Hakazalika babu wata doka ko ka’ida da ta bukaci jam’iyyun siyasa su wallafa wani bayani game da bayanan mutanen da suka tara. Duk da haka, akwai wasu hanyoyin da za ka bibiya domin ganin yadda aka ajiye bayananka. Hanyar farko itace takardar rijistan zabe. Kowace kasa na da dokoki daban-daban game da takardar rijistan zabe. Ga wadanda ke bayyane irin kasar Chile da Kenya, za ka iya bibiyan bayananka cikin sauki. Hakazalika kasar Birtaniya da Amurka na bayyana wasu bayanan rijistan mai zabe ga jama’a. Dubi da lura mai zurfi cikin jawabai da sakonnin da aka samu daga kungiyoyin siyasa na iya bada karin haske cikin irin bayanan da aka tattara. Wannan ya hada da akwatin sakonni, ziyarar masu kamfe, kiraye-kirayen waya daga kungiyoyin siyasa.

Abubuwan la’akari

↘ Kundin masu zabe na baiwa jam’iyyun siyasa fahimtar yadda zasu yi amfani kudi mafi karanci, saboda runbun bayanan mai zabe na bada damar sanin irin sakon da zasu turawa mutane, dangane da goyon bayansu, rashin goyon bayansu ko rashin ra’ayi gaba daya.

↘ Runbun bayanai kan taimakawa kungiyoyin siyasa da labaran mai zabe na musamman irinsu ilimi, yanayin wajen zamansa da irin rayuwar da yake ciki.

↘ Kundin masu zabe na baiwa jam’iyyun siyasa damar duba irin yadda mambobinsu suka bazu a sassan kasa domin sanin wuraren da basu da mambobi kuma ya kamata su mayar hankali

↘Hakazalika suna iya taimakawa jam’iyyun siyasa wajen fahimtar mambobinsu wajen kirkirar dokoki bisa ra’ayoyin jama’a.

↘ A duk yayinda jam’iyyun siyasa suka samu damar shiga runbun bayanan mai zabe, zai taimaka wajen nuna daidaito; amma jam’iyyun siyasan da suka fi kudi, dukiya da makaman aiki za su iya inganta bayanan ta wasu hanyoyin tattara bayani da zai basu daman ribatar abinda sauran abokan hammayarsu basu riska ba.

↘ Daura bayanai cikin runbun a kai-akai na da tsada da daukan lokaci. Saboda haka, za su iya kunsan kura-kurai da tsaffin labarai, misali irin wanda ya faru da rijistan zaben kasar Kenya. A kasar Birtaniya, jam’iyyar Labour da Conservative sun samu matsaloli da runbun bayanansu, kama daga daukewa zuwa rushewa.

↘ Akwai lokuta daban-daban da aka samu an saki bayanan mai zabe a sirrance (ko kuma wasu sun samu ta bayan fagge), wanda ke da illa ga rayuwar sirrin mai zabe.

↘ Wadannan runbunan kadarori ne amma da banbanci tsakanin jam’iyyun siyasa. Saboda hakan zai iya haifar da rashin daidaito tsakaninsu kuma zai iya canza tsarin demokradiyya.


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